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Anthropological History 

of Europe 


Cde Rbint) lectutesbip in atcfiaeologg. 

Anthropological History 
of Europe 

Being the Rhind Lectures for 1891 




M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

Vice-President of the Anthropological Institute ; 

Officier de V Instruction Publique {France) ; 

Corr. Memb. Anthrop. Soc, Berlin; 

For. Assoc. Anth. Soc, Paris; 

Hon. Memb. Imp. Soc. of Fr'- of Sci., Moscow ; 

Hon. 3Iemb. Anthr. Soc*-, Brussels and Washington ; 

Amer. Antiq. Soc, etc. 



pnbttehcr bg ^ftp ointment to tht l«t( Qstm Victom 
* 1912 






This new edition of The Anthropological History 
of Europe seems to be called for not only by the 
exhaustion of the earlier one, but by the lapse of 
time (twenty years) since the delivery of the Rhind 
Lectures of 1891, during which period the limits 
of what may fairly be termed history have been 
pushed back in some parts of Europe by hundreds 
or even thousands of years, and the views I origin- 
ally expressed on some parts of the subject have 
either been confirmed or rendered more problem- 
atical. I have endeavoured therefore to bring 
the volume up to date, but have avoided entering 
on the discussion of such subjects as pygmies and 
steatopygous men in Europe, of which we as yet 
know little, and which must as yet be excluded 
from the domain of history. 

J. B. 

June, 1911. 




First Lecture. 

The Aryan Question and that of 

Variation of Type, .... 9 

History of the Aryan Question — Latham and European origin — 
Ujfalvy's discovery of the Galchas — The Scandinavian and 
Lithuanian heresies — The Variation Question — Extreme views 
— Monogenism and Polygenism — Supposed modifying influ- 
ences — Climate and environment — Conjugal selection — Dwind- 
ling of military and governing castes — EflFectvS of food and drink. 

Second Lecture. 

Variation— Primeval Man— Succession 

OF Races, 37 

Opinions of contemporary anthropologists — Kollman's five per- 
manent European types — Deniker on importance of hair as a 
character — Schaaffhausen on inferiority of primitive man and 
of the longheaded type — Ancient types : the Canstatt : the 
Cro-magnon : the Eskimo — Neolithic period : brachykephals 
abroad ; none in Britain — Bronze periods — Swarming of suc- 
cessive races : Phoenicians, Greeks, Gauls, Romans, Teutons, 
Saracens, Slavs, Turco-mongols. 

Third Lecture. 
Russia and the Balkan Peninsula, - 64 

Russia — The Scythians — Spread of the Slavs — Physical characters 
of the Finns — The Merians — The Mongol invasion— Compo- 
sition of the modern Russian people — The Lithuanians — Ugrian 
and Tartar tribes — The ancient occupants of the Balkan pen- 
insula — The Hellenes — Modern descendants of the Thracians 
and lUyrians. 

8 Contents. 


Fourth Lecture. 
Scandinavia, Central Europe, France, 90 

Oldest Scandinavian Skull-forms — The Borreby and Svelrik skulls 
— The Rhoxalani — Modern Norwegians and Danes — The Ice- 
landers — Ancient German Graverow type — The four Swiss 
types of His and Rutimeyer — Von Holder's discoveries at 
Ratisbon — Ranke on the Bavarians — Bohemia — Hallstadt — 
Hungary, Poland, Holland — Colour and stature in Central 
Europe — France, constitution of the Keltic nation there — 
Results of the Volkswanderung — Clear demarcation of types in 
Belgium, less clear in France — Investigations of Topinard and 

Fifth Lecture. 
Spain, Italy, and the British Isles, - 124 

Spain and Portugal — De A.ranzadi on the Basques — Italy : The 
Ancient and Modern Romans — The Sards, purest race in 
Western Europe — The Jews ; their original and secondary types 
— The Gypsies — Brief sketch of the Races of Britain : Specimen 
districts — Pembrokeshire — The Isle of Man. 

Sixth Lecture. 
Scotland, with General Conclusions, 147 

Considerations of special districts, such as Berwickshire, an 
Anglian, and Ballachulish, a Gaelic locality — Difficult and 
doubtful points in British ethnology — Possible effects of urban 
life — Growth and decline of races and types, and their probable 

Appendix— Description of Illustrations, 190 



Curves of Kephalic Index (from Retzius and Furst), - facing 88 
European Skull Types — Vertical Aspect, - - - ,, 102 
Curves of Stature in French Conscripts, - - - ,,122 

Living (Kephalic) Index, ,, 166 

Diagram of SkuUbreadth in Pure and in Mixed Races, ,, 178 



History of the Aryan Question — Latham and European origin — 
Ujfalvy's discovery of the Galchas — The Scandinavian and 
Lithuanian heresies — The Variation Question — Extreme views 
— Monogenism and Polygenism — Supposed modifying influ- 
ences — Climate and environment — Conjugal selection — Dwind- 
ling of military and governing castes — Effects of food and drink. 

IN accordance with the will of my valued and 
lamented friend the founder of the Rhind 
Lectureship, I am taking for my subject the anthro- 
pology of ancient Europe and its connection with 
that of modern Europe, and especially of our own 
country ; including the descent and connections or 
relations of physical types. If from these we can 
deduce anything as to the laws which govern the 
changes that have taken place in these types, or as 
to the causes of their development, so much the 
better. I scarcely hope to do that ; but I may per- 
haps be able at least to place some of the problems 
of anthropology before you. 

Now, these are of course many; but there are two 
which above all others are at present constant sub- 
jects of debate; and one of them is what may be 
shortly denoted as the Aryan Question, while the 


10 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

other is the question of the degree of permanence 
of types, of the stability or permanence of form 
and colour, of the influence upon physical character 
of media, of surroundings and external agencies, 
whether directly or by way of natural selection. 

The Aryan question was originally a philological 
one : it was philological discovery that gave it birth 
— the discovery of Sanskrit and Zend, and of their 
relation to the principal European languages — and 
while everybody devoutly believed in the powerful 
and rapid influence of media, and was not particu- 
larly curious as to the mode of working of these 
media, while everybody thought that negroes were 
black because the sun had burned them so, and 
nobody troubled his own head about the form of 
the heads of other folk, there was no difficulty in 
believing that all people who spoke Aryan (or Indo- 
German) languages were of one blood. 

Then came the knowledge of the Indian and 
Persian sacred books, of how the Veda introduced 
the white-complexioned friends of Indra from the 
north-west, and how the Vendidad brought the 
noble Aryan from a cold country, where there were 
only two months of summer, and which apparently 
lay closer to Sogdiana and Bactria, to the Jaxartes 
and the Oxus, than to any other part of ancient 
Iran. And so it was that the Roof of the World, 
the tableland of Pamir, and the valleys that seamed 
its skirts, came to be looked on as the cradle of the 
Aryan race. 

I believe it was my old friend. Dr. Robert Gordon 
Latham, who was the first to rebel against this doc- 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 11 

trine. He was the father of many paradoxes, most 
of which perished still-born or in their cradles ; but 
this one, though ill received at first in the land of 
its birth, throve wonderfully in Germany, where 
philologists found arguments in its favour more 
cogent perhaps than those of its parent, whose chief 
point indeed was the simple one that, whereas there 
were far more Aryan -speaking men in Europe than 
in Asia, the onus probandi lay on those who would 
derive the greater from the less, rather than the less 
from the greater. The same kind of argument 
might have been used to derive the Jews from 
Poland, or the British people from the United 
States, or rather from North America, or the Por- 
tuguese from Brazil. 

Other and important elements and considera- 
tions have since been introduced into the question, 
or recognized as bearing upon it. Many of these 
are philological : much, as you are aware, is deduced 
from study of the words which are common to all 
or most of the Indo-German languages, and may 
therefore be supposed to have belonged to the 
original Aryan tongue. On this part of the subject 
I am quite incompetent to enlarge ; but I would 
like to take the opportunity of expressing some 
doubt whether sufficient notice is taken of the easy 
transference of meaning, in the words which are 
used for the purpose of this line of argument, which 
may considerably affect their value. Thus the 
Latin aes, brass, appears to be identical with the 
German eisen, iron. Geiger drew attention to this 
ease of transference ; but, however well known. 

12 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

it seems sometimes to be forgotten or under- 

The investigation, by a distinguished Hungarian 
traveller, of the Galchas, the race who inhabit Kar- 
ategin, Durwaz, Shignan, Wakhan, the elevated 
valleys of the Oxus and the Zerafshan, which 
constitute precisely the cradle of the Aryan race, 
according to those who cling to the earlier theory, 
has also given some of us new lights on the subject. 
For whereas we northern Europeans have most of 
us long-oval or oblong heads, and the same is the 
case with high-caste Hindus, who, by the original 
hypothesis, were our near kinsfolk ; we were accus- 
tomed to assume, that we were the genuine descen- 
dants of the potentially gifted Aryan; while the 
anthropologists of the central latitudes of Europe, in- 
cluding the great Broca himself, having heads whose 
breadth was greater than four-fifths of their length, 
sat contentedly under the imputation of belonging 
to an inferior race, which, among other benefits, had 
received from us at least the rudiments of their ad- 
mirable languages. For had not Broca himself shewn, 
pretty conclusively, that head-form was a vastly more 
permanent characteristic of race than language } 

Wood, and I believe Burnes, and perhaps one or 
two Russian travellers, had indeed penetrated the 
inmost recesses of Pamir, but Ujfalvy was the first 
to submit a competent number of the Galchas to 
scientific investigation. And in his hands they 
turned out to be a sturdy, thick-set, short-headed 
population, dark-haired on the whole and hazel- 
eyed, though including a certain proportion of^ 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 13 

blonds, and on the whole yielding, to the callipers 
and measuring tape, figures not unlike what may 
be gotten in Auvergne, or in the Alpine valleys of 
Savoy or Piedmont. 

Now these Galchas, with their neighbours the 
Badakshani (lying south of them between the Oxus 
and the Hindu Kush, and reported to resemble 
them), have apparently the best title to represent 
our Aryan ancestors, if those ancestors are really to 
be sought in Asia. It would be natural for the sur- 
plus population of these valleys to overflow into 
Sogdiana and Bactria, as it is represented in the 
Vendidad to have done. 

It is true, on the other hand, that the tribes 
which occupy the secluded valleys south of the 
crest of the Hindu Kush seem to differ physically 
from the Galchas. But not only the geographical 
position of these tribes, the Kafirs or Siah-Posh 
Kafirs, the Chitralis (who seem to be Islamized 
Kafirs), the people of Hunza-Nagar, the Dards, 
whom we know to have occupied, by the unmis- 
takable name of Daradrae, the same position since 
the dawn of geography ; not only their position, but 
whatever we know of them, seems to indicate that 
they bear the same relation to the Hindus that the 
Galchas bear to the Persians; that if the Galchas are 
the rearguard of the old Persian migration, these 
Kafirs and Dards are the rearguard of the Aryo- 
Hindu migration. 

Our information regarding the physical charac- 
ters of these southern tribes is not so comprehensive 
as might be wished, but here also Ujfalvy has helped 

14 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

us ; and it is satisfactory that they have been exam- 
ined by the very man who knows most about their 
analogues, the Galchas. Ujfalvy confirms what 
little other information we have about their crania. 
They are generally long-headed, the average cranial 
index or proportion of breadth to length being 
about 75, or nearly identical with the average in our 
own country. It may be worth mentioning, how- 
ever, that the one Siah-Posh Kafir who has ever 
visited England, and whom through the courtesy of 
Professor Leitner I had the opportunity of examin- 
ing, was an exception to the rule; he had a short, 
square head, and altogether more resembled the 
Galchas, as they are described. 

There are evidently great varieties of complexion 
among these people. Bellew says some Kafirs are 
very dark and others very fair. Sir C. Robertson 
says most Kafirs are about the same complexion as 
Punjabis. Ujfalvy met with some blonds; and so 
did Leitner in Dardistan, and Hayward also : but 
the first named observer finally concluded that the 
cradle of the blonds, the fountain-head of the fair 
races, is not to be found either north or south of the 
Hindu Kush. 

Obviously, with facts like these among the bases 
of argument, a great number of views about Aryan 
origins are possible, even after excluding any which 
might start with a denial of there having ever been 
a time when the speakers of the primitive Aryan 
language "dwelt together under one roof," or at 
least in the same horde. 

Thus, firstly, the starting-point may have been 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 15 

in the land of the Galchas ; the first offswarm may 
have been that of the ancestors of the European 
nations, the second that of the ancestors of the 
high-caste Hindus, the residue being the parents of 
the Persians and their kindred tribes, the Kurds, 
Afghans, Ossetes of the Caucasus, etc. This may 
be said to be the orthodox view, of which Professor 
MiJller was the great champion, but it has long been 
losing ground. Those who still adhere to it must 
entertain strong opinions as to the easy mutability 
of language, the readiness of one tribe or nation to 
accept and acquire the language of another; or they 
must believe in the powerful and rapid action of 
media, of external agencies, upon national physique; 
or, still better, they must combine both these ways 
of thinking. 

A sub-variety of this first species, held by some 
who have formed a low estimate of the power of 
external agencies, and particularly by some French 
anthropologists, is this — that the brachycephalic or 
broad-headed folk of Central Europe, that is, of the 
central zone in latitude, which includes most of the 
great mountain -chains — the Cevennes, the Alps, the 
Black Forest, the Vosges, the Carpathians and 
Pindus, with the regions adjacent — that all these 
are descended from Asiatic ancestors of a common 
stock with the Galchas, that they brought the 
Aryan language into Europe, and communicated it 
to the northern and southern Europeans. This 
opinion is based upon the resemblance between the 
Galchas and the Auvergnats, for example, which 
certainly does appear very close. 

16 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Next comes the great modern heresy, already 
mentioned, which derives the Aryan languages of 
Asia in their two great branches, the Iranian and 
the Indian, from Europe. It has gained ground very 
much of late years, and may now perhaps be said to 
hold the field. Few, however, of those who hold it 
make any endeavour to account for the colonization 
of Asia, the difficulty of doing which is very great. 
There are two principal sub-varieties of this theory, 
one of which supposes the primitive Aryan language 
to have originated somewhere in that central region 
of Europe which I have just now been defining, 
while the other assigns the credit of having given 
it birth to the northern zone, and to the blond, 
dolichocephalic (long-headed) family, of which the 
Scandinavians furnish the best types. The argu- 
ments in favour of these two varieties of opinion 
may be found respectively in two books of small 
dimensions, and in our own language — that of 
Canon Isaac Taylor, who champions the Central 
or Alpine brachycephals, and that of Professor 
Rendell, who takes up the cause of our own north- 
ern long-heads. 

There are anthropologists in Germany, however 
— as Poesche and Fligier, for example-r-who would 
trace the patriarchal Aryan to his lair in the marshes 
of Lithuania, rather than to the valleys of the Alps 
or the forests of Sweden. The alleged nearer rela- 
tion of Sanskrit to Lithuanic than to any other 
European language, furnishes them with one argu- 
ment ; another, which may or may not be relevant, 
is that Lithuania has some title to be considered the 


The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. Y7 

cradle of the blonds — of this, more hereafter ; a third 
is, or might be, the geographical position of the 
country, which, before the Slavonic Russians pushed 
north-eastwards across the Dnieper, may have had 
an uninterrupted plain, totally unoccupied so far as 
Aryan-speaking men were concerned, extending all 
the way from their frontier to that of the Galchas 
or their kindred in Turkestan. 

In the next place we must consider briefly the 
great question of transformation or of variability 
of type. Time was when no one had any doubt 
about the powerful influence of external agencies, 
nor any about their operating in the most direct 
way. They saw, as we see, that they do affect the 
individual both physically and morally, that the 
sun tans or freckles the complexion of a blond, 
developing pigment either over the whole exposed 
surface or merely in spots, and that it darkens or 
yellows the skin of a brunette. They saw, or 
thought they saw, that the vigorous, energetic 
European grew languid and indolent in the tropics; 
nay, moreover, that his children born there did not 
grow up equal to their father in energy and spirit. 
So long ago as the period of the Crusades, the 
Syrian Creoles, the Syrian-born children of the 
Frank soldiers, were complimented with the name 
of Pulleins (Pullani), because they were supposed to 
be chicken-hearted. The Castilian said the grass 
of Valencia was water, and its men were women, 
blaming the climate in both cases. The Negro, 
then, was black because the sun had burnt him, and 
his father before him : the Red Indian was red, or 

18 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

rather brown, because for generations his ancestors 
had been exposed to sun and wind without, and to 
dirt and smoke within, their wigwams. Thomas 
Price, one of the first men to observe and note 
differences of physical character in our own islands, 
ascribed the dark hue of the iris, which he found 
to prevail in some districts, to the use of coal- 
fires ; while others, with more apparent probability, 
ascribed the prognathous features of certain of the 
Irish peasantry, either to the influence of misery 
and starvation, or to the continual exercise of the 
jaws upon large quantities of half-boiled potatoes 
" with the bones in them." You will recollect that 
eloquent description of them, often quoted for 
political purposes — "Five feet two inches on an 
average, pot-bellied, abortively featured, these 
spectres of a people that once were able-bodied 
and comely," etc., etc. Montesquieu in France, and 
Falconer, and, more recently. Buckle, have pro- 
bably been the best expositors of this view of the 
subject. Some of their ideas as to the influence of 
external agencies on the individual were deserving 
of respect and consideration ; but as a rule they 
quite ignored the great principles of heredity. 

New lights began to play upon the subject from 
the speculations of Oken and Lamarck and our own 
Robert Chambers ; until finally the full blaze of 
the great idea of variation of type through natural 
selection was turned upon it by Darwin and 
Wallace. Its development checked a current of 
thought which had meanwhile been in process of 
growth among the anthropologists, more especially 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 19 

those of France, who a generation ago were the 
undisputed leaders in their own science. The old 
idea, derived from the usual interpretation of the 
Old Testament, had been that all mankind were 
undoubtedly descended from a single pair, and 
must therefore have been capable of rapid or even 
sudden variations of type, in order to the produc- 
tion of the numerous and widely different varieties 
which we now see scattered over the world. The 
gradual admission of the claims of geology within 
the circle of orthodox opinion, only lessened the 
difficulties of this view, by greatly and indefinitely 
extending the period available for these variations. 
But now began a reaction. The j jiench Egypt^- 
logists^proclaimed _that_jiumerous types of man 
were to be found portrayed in the ancieiTt^walt- 
paintings, identical with those at present existing, 
and quite as sharply discriminated ; and they began 
to ask why — if_5000~y€ar& had done nothjng to bjing^^ 
about physical_£hangesjn man — why shouldj5Q^00_ 
years be supposed to have done so much ? Nott and 
Gliddon in America, in the Southern States of the 
American Union, animated obviously and naturally 
by political feeling, urged this question in reference 
to the supposed eternal gulf that divided the white 
man from the black; and their arguments were 
relied on by Southern politicians. Boudin and 
Broca, in France, took up the subject of hereditary 
stature. There is perhaps no physical character 
which might, a priori, be expected to vary more 
easily under the operations of different conditions 
of life, and more especially of differences in 

20 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

the nature and relative abundance of nutriment. 
Boudin, however, maintained that where large 
masses of population were considered, the scarcity 
or abundance of food could not be shown to have 
any influence; and Broca shewed that in France 
stature was an attribute of race, that tall stature 
coincided in locality with a fair complexion, a long 
head, a certain form of nose, and a tendency to 
suffer from decayed teeth and certain other in- 

Some of those anthropologists who built upon 
Broca's facts carried out their deductions into the 
region of paradox. Blumenbach and his successors 
had acknowledged three, or at most five, great 
varieties of the human species : there was Homo 
Sapiens albus europaeus, the white man of Europe 
and Western Asia ; Homo Sapiens flavus asiaticus, 
the yellow or Mongolian man ; Homo Sapiens niger 
africanus, the negro, then in process of detection 
elsewhere than in Africa ; to these others added 
Homo Sapiens ruber americanus, the Red Indian, 
whom Blumenbach had made a sub-variety of the 
Mongolian ; and the Malay, also nearer to the Mon- 
golian than to either of the other two original 
varieties, was by some added as a fifth. Next the 
Hottentot and the Austral Negro put in their 
claims for separation. Then Huxley divided the 
dark whites from the blond whites, i.e., for example, 
the Spaniards and Berbers from the Swedes. And 
the last and best classification that I have seen, that 
of Deniker of Paris, admits thirteen divisions, one 
of which is entirely constituted by the Aino, the 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 21 

hairy men of Yesso and Saghalien, some of whose 
blood enters into the composition of the Japanese. 

Deniker of course does not claim a separate 
origin for all his thirteen varieties of man ; he 
simply means that they are all well-defined, recog- 
nizable, and practically permanent in the absence of 
crossing. Few, if any, now contend for the separate 
origin of more than two, or three at the most. But 
it was otherwise not so long ago. In evidence 
let me cite a particular case. At the foot of the 
Himalayas extends a long narrow belt of intensely 
malarious forest called the Terai. So pestilential 
is the Terai that it used to be said it was death for 
a European to sleep within its limits, or to traverse 
them by night ; and it was almost equally deadly 
to even the neighbouring tribes. But there is a 
race of people called the Bodo, who inhabit this 
otherwise deserted swamp, and defy its deadly 
malaria with impunity. They were first described, 
I believe, by Mr. Bryan Hodgson, who wrote a 
valuable work on them, and on some other sub- 
Himalayan tribes. Their civilization of course is 
low, but their Mongoloid heads and features pre- 
sent scarcely any peculiarities, when compared with 
those of the Lepchas or other hill-tribes of the 
Himalaya; the physiognomy may differ a little, 
but nothing comes out in the measurements. Now 
Barnard Davis, the " doyen " of British anthropo- 
logists in his day, was well-acquainted with the 
Bodo, so far as he could be without personally 
interviewing them. And his opinion was that the 
Bodo were an entirely distinct variety of man, who 

22 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

derived their singular immunity from fever from 
their having been created or developed in situ. 

Since that time opinions have grown to be a 
little less extreme; the polygenists, the advocates 
of plurality of origin, have ceased, as I said just 
now, to require more than two or three starting- 
points for our species, and have begun to attach 
more or less importance to the various possible 
modifying agencies; while the monogenists are 
more ready to acknowledge the feebleness of the 
direct action of climate, food, etc., and the slowness 
of the changes produced in other ways. Before 
these parties can come to anything like an agree- 
ment, it will be necessary for the biologist to settle 
a great question which lies behind or at the bottom 
of all these disputes — that of the descent by inheri- 
tance of acquired characters. 

I will now proceed to enumerate a few of the 
supposed modifying influences : — 

First comes the direct influence of climate, of 

sunshine, temperature, moisture, malaria.^ Of this 

^/ we now hear comparatively little, though there is 

more evidence of the deteriorative effect of malaria 

\ on physical type than is generally known. 

Secondly, the doubtlessly powerful influence of 
natural selection, of which new modes of work- 
ing are continually being found out or suspected. 
Hereunder, for example, comes the most plausible 

^ With the progress of microscopic pathology, the domain of true 
malaria is constantly being circumscribed, and may perhaps be ulti- 
mately annihilated. But I use the terra for the sake of convenience. 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 23 

theory ever yet brought forward to account for the 
origin of the blond complexion, that of Mr. Buchan 
of Toronto, who, choosing Southern Scandinavia 
as its most probable birthplace, shows how a fine 
transparent skin might give its owner a slight 
advantage in a somewhat cool and damp climate 
which it would not have elsewhere, and which 
indeed might be positively detrimental in a hot 
country, especially where the air is also dry. 
Looking at this theory with historical side-lights 
and qualifications, and taking note of the slow- 
ness with which so slight an advantage might be 
expected to make itself felt, there seems very little 
to object to it, except the description given by 
the Chinese annalists of the Woo-Sun, and other 
green-eyed, red-haired tribes who once inhabited 
Central Asia. And this objection may be some- 
what weakened if we accept the opinions of many 
geologists as to the recent existence of a great 
West- Asiatic Sea, of which the Euxine, the Caspian 
and the Aral are the dwindling remains, and which 
would have caused the climate of that region to be 
much damper than it now is. 

Malaria evidently works much by natural selec- 
tion. In New Orleans, for example, the fair races of 
Northern Europe, including our own, are said to 
suffer most from yellow fever, and the negroes 
least; while the dark races of Southern Europe, 
Huxley's Melanochroi, occupy an intermediate posi- 
tion, the French moreover standing worse than the 
more southern Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians. 
It would probably be impossible for the Anglo- 



24 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

American permanently to hold his ground in New 
Orleans, without the presence of the other races 
whom he utilises; and if he does succeed in doing 
so, it is likely that the blonds may in course of time 
almost entirely disappear from his ranks. Their 
only hope seems to lie in the total abolition of so- 
called malarial fevers, but experience at Havana 
seems to indicate that this is not impossible. 

It is my opinion, though I cannot prove it, that 
a process of selection, which may perhaps be called 
natural, works against the perpetuation of certain 
types in our cities. Tall, rapidly-developing chil- 
dren, and especially those of fair complexion, have 
seemed to me less able to thrive without fresh air 
and abundant food than others. And tall striplings 
are more apt to suffer from consumption than short, 
stocky, slowly-developing young men. Since this 
was written. Dr. Shrubsall has collected much evi- 
dence on this subject, shewing, for example, that 
the blonds are more apt to be cut off by scarletina 
and acute rheumatism. These may be among the 
causes of the lower stature of our town artisans and 
labourers, as compared with the professional and 
well-to-do classes. This difference, as you are 
probably aware, is pretty considerable. Roberts 
aud Rawson, summing up the wide field of induc- 
tion yielded by the schedules of the British Asso- 
ciation Committee, found it to amount to quite two 
inches; and I myself found nearly that difference 
between the average stature of an upper-class com- 
pany and of some artisan companies in the Bristol 
Volunteer Rifle Corps. 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 25 

Sir James Simpson pointed out, a good many 
years ago, that nature had placed a barrier in the 
way of the too great development of the human 
brain, so that infants with very large heads usually 
perished at their entry into the world. And I am v/ 
pretty certain that in this matter nature favours the 
dolichocephals, the long-headed, rather than the 
broad -headed type. This conclusion I arrived at 
many years ago, at a time when the great Maternity 
Hospital of Vienna afforded me much material for 

It is commonly believed, and Alfred Wallace, 
in particular among naturalists, has insisted upon 
the consideration, that whereas natural selection 
operated very strongly in early stages of society 
in the direction of physical improvement, by the 
elimination of the smaller and weaker individuals, 
civilization has now put an end to, or at least greatly 
restricted, its action. There is, of course, a con- 
siderable amount of truth in this doctrine ; but if 
one particlar form of selection, that which may be 
styled selection by combat, is no longer largely 
operative, there are other forms of it, whether 
rightly to be called " natural " or not we need not 
discuss, which are still at work among us, and some 
of which may conceivably be altering our physical 

Conjugal selection is one of these. Francis Galton 
has pointed out that the slackening or positive arrest 
of intellectual progress during the Middle Ages was 
due in some measure to the fact that men who had 
more brain than muscle naturally gravitated toward 


26 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

the monasteries, and being there shut up, and pro- 
hibited from marriage, did not reproduce their kind, 
while the sturdy blockheads who remained outside 
the convent walls did do so. The anthropologist 
in this country has great difficulty in obtaining 
facilities for measuring mediaeval skulls : popular 
and even clerical prejudices on the subject are a 
serious obstacle ; ^ but I have always taken advan- 
tage of any such opportunities; and I have been 
struck with the fine frontal development of some 
monkish skulls, while those of persons supposed to 
have belonged to the mediaeval chivalry were often 
small and poorly developed. This observation evi- 
dently corroborates Galton's idea. 

The possible effect in this case would be an al- 
teration in the dimensions of the skull, particularly 
in the frontal region. But it is quite conceivable 
that the prevailing complexion or colour of hair and 
eyes might be altered in this kind of way. Fashions 
change in regard to the popularity of colours ; and 
they differ in different countries. Red hair fur- 
nishes the best instance. Red-haired persons do not 
now constitute the majority in any tribe or nation, 
not even among the Voguls and Votiaks of the 
Uralian region ; but there is some reason for think- 
ing that red hair was once much more prevalent 
than now. In most parts of India it hardly occursM 

— - -^ 

^The late Dean Macneil of Ripon buried, unmeasured and un- 
chronicled, a most valuable collection of mediaeval bones, which had 
occupied the crypt of the minster for centuries before he came to 
disturb it. 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. TJ 

among the Brahmins;^ yet it is pretty certain that 
it once did, else why were Brahmins forbidden, as it 
is said they were, by the laws of Manu, to marry 
red-haired women. Blonds and red-haired persons 
do still occur about the Hindu Kush, among the 
tribes from whom the Brahmins are supposed to 
have been emigrants; and from that fact, as well 
as from the existence of the law, we may con- 
clude that they continued to appear, in small 
numbers doubtless, among the Brahmins domi- 
ciled in India, and that no unfavourable action 
of climate had extinguished them. But obedience 
to the law in question would certainly in the 
course of time annihilate the tendency to their 

In Germany the colour seems to have been un- 
popular for ages, curiously enough, as it belonged 
more particularly to the nobles and freemen, who 
were of true Germanic blood. Red-haired men are, 
and have long been, known as "foxes" among the 
peasantry. So far as we can trust the descriptions 
left us by classical writers — I confess I do not trust 
them implicitly — the Germans were once as pre- 
vailingly red-haired as we know, on surer grounds, 
they were long-headed ; but at present red hair is 
not very common among them, and when it occurs 
it is not like the brilliant Highland red that we are 
familiar with. May not fashion, operating through 

* I have learned from Dr. Burgess that a small tribe of Brahmins 
exists somewhere to the south of Bombay among whom red or light 
hair is not uncommon. 

28 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

conjugal selection, have had something to do with 
its diminution. 

In Britain there have been changes in fashion 
with regard to its estimation, and during the pre- 
sent generation the aesthetic revival, bringing to 
bear the pretty persistent admiration of it expressed 
by artists and poets, have rendered it highly popu- 
lar, at least among the upper classes. So it was 
during most of the sixteenth century ; for I believe 
it was flattery in Holbein that led to its appearing 
so frequently on his canvas ; and we may apply the 
same test which convicts the golden-haired beauties 
of Venice in the palmy days of her artists ; we may 
examine comparatively the portraits of the men of 
the same date, when we shall find no such pre- 
ponderance of auburn and golden hues as in the 
other sex. 

Some years ago I endeavoured to investigate this 
question of the possible influence of conjugal selec- 
tion on colour, and the ultimate result to which 
I came, from the observation of nearly 600 women, 
was that among the labouring classes of Bristol 
fewer of the red-haired and of the black -haired 
women entered into matrimony than of the fair, 
brown, or dark-brown. I do not think the basis 
was broad enough to sustain much weight of induc- 
tion; but, as I have stated elsewhere, if the case 
were really as my figures seemed to show, and if 
the same condition of things were to endure for a 
few generations, the discouragement of the pro- 
duction of hair pigment would be so great that we 
should have a general prevalance of dull shades of 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 29 

brown, to the confusion and despair of poets and 

It is very difficult to estimate or analyse at all 
satisfactorily the power which different marriage- 
rates may have upon the reproduction of different 
elements of population. That it may be very great 
has been shown by Francis Galton, in his Record of 
Family Faculties, where, taking two populations 
of equal number, in one of which the women are 
supposed to marry at the age of 20, and the other 
at 29, all other things being equal, he calculates that 
in 324 years the former group will have increased 
from 100 to 535, while the latter will have decreased 
from 100 to 23. "The general result," says he, "is 
that the group B gradually disappears, and the 
group A more than supplants it." 

Of course the matter is not quite so simple as it 
appears in Galton's statement ; there are considera- 
tions, for example, as to the relative mortality of 
children, of premature, of mature, and of too late 
marriages, which cannot be very accurately weighed, 
and which are here put aside ; but there can be no 
doubt of the substantial truth of the conclusion, 
that in a few hundred years the community A would 
be a good many times more numerous than the com- 
munity B, which latter would be well on its way 
towards extinction. 

Yet the disadvantage at which community B is 
placed, in this imaginary comparison, is probably 
not so great as that at which some sections or 
classes in a nation are frequently placed in relation 
to the rest. Let us allow that in the days of 

30 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

long-period military service the enlisted men were 
physically above the average in stature and vigour. 
I conjecture that such was really the case while 
the standard for recruits was high, and when the 
Scottish Highlanders and the south-country and 
Irish peasantry were still enlisting. It is clear that 
these men, as a class, could not have reproduced the 
species to any great extent ; such of them as escaped 
all the dangers of a soldier's career returned home 
comparatively late in life, and would be in a worse 
position in this respect by far than Galton's com- 
munity B. And inasmuch as they were so, the 
general physical standard of the next generation 
would, we conclude, be slightly lowered. It was 
lowered in France by Napoleon's wars. 

But soldiers are not the only class in which the 
relative frequency of marriage is lessened, and the 
average age at marriage raised, by the circum- 
stances of their profession. In this country, and at 
the present time, this applies more or less to the 
(/'whole of the upper middle classes, the best educated 
portion of the community, who will therefore con- 
tribute far less than their share to the mass of the 
coming generation. 

In most countries, and at most periods, the in- 
fluence of caste-division has made itself felt in 
this direction. To some races, reduction to slavery 
has been merely a deferred death-sentence; thus 
nations perished, after passing through the status 
of slavery, during the expansion of the Roman 
power; and the Indians of the Antilles withered 
away under the Spanish tyranny. The freemen of 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 31 

ancient Greece seem to have multiplied their noble 
type of man at a very rapid rate ; and their civiliza- 
tion was based upon slavery. But the rule is that 
a governing caste multiplies far less freely than a 
subordinate one. There are several obvious causes 
for this. The prudential check tells more on those 
who have something to lose, than on those who 
have nothing. 

Thus, in the old border ballad. Sir James Murray 
is quite willing to risk his life by rising in arms 
against the King : 

" The king has gifted my lands langsyne ; 
It canna be nae waur with me ! " 

while Andrew Murray, the more prosperous mem- 
ber of the family, takes a more anxious view — 

" Judge gif it stands na hard wi' me 
To enter against a king wi* crown, 
An' put my lands in jeopardie ? " 

Then the ruling or superior caste is usually and 
naturally the military one, and subject to all the 
risks of military life.^ But most important is 
usually the caste - feeling against giving the 
daughters of the family to inferiors in rank, even 
when no other husbands are available. Hence in- 
fanticide and nunneries, and gradual decline in 
numbers of the legitimate members of the caste; 
while the subordinate castes, wherein marriage is 
more facile, multiply and rise to power. 

^ " Rara est in nobilitate senectus," is the motto on the fine old 
monument of the Herberts in Montgomery Church. 

32 The A nthropological History of Europe. 

The great expenditure of life among mariners, 
many of whom perish unmarried at early ages, 
must at least diminish the rate of increase among 
maritime communities. 
^ Among people who emigrate from their native 
country to colonise another and a vacant or a 
thinly-peopled one, divers and contrary influences 
seem to work. In the beginning, while there 
are still difficulties with hostile aborigines, scanty 
supplies of food, ignorance of the effects of climate, 
and so forth, there is usually great expenditure of 
life and little re-production; but as the colony 
grows and thrives, and receives a sufficient supply 
of the female element, the birth-rate usually be- 
comes exceedingly high, and multiplication rapid. 
Perhaps the most conspicuous modern instance of 
this is to be found in the province of Quebec, 
where the French Canadians, assisted probably by 
the cross of Red Indian blood which brings their 
constitution into better harmony with the climate, 
have multiplied in a century and a half from a few 
thousands up to more than a million. 

In Australasia, too, as well as in the United States 
of America, the rate of increase was for a long time 
exceedingly high, though in both it seems to be now 
diminishing with the increase of density of popula- 
tion, and of the social difficulties thereby entailed. 
At the same time the artisan population of the 
towns seems to contribute the greater proportion of 
the increase, while among the adventurous pioneers 
in the back settlements the rate is comparatively 
low. The relevance of this may not immediately 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 33 

appear; but it will seem more distinct when I call 
your attention to the fact that types of men, different 
physically as well as morally, gravitate towards dif- 
ferent lines of life. Thus Calvinistic theology is 
attractive to the man of melancholic, not to the 
man of sanguine temperament. Now, these tem- 
peraments have respectively their external signs, 
and do not occur with equal frequency in all races. 
There are many other factors in the destiny of an 
individual besides his physical constitution ; but "^^^^ 
nevertheless I believe you will find that an unusual 
proportion of men with dark straight hair enter the 
ministry; that the red-whiskered men are apt to be 
given to sporting and horseflesh ; and that tall, 
vigorous blond long-headed men, lineal descendants 
of the Vikings, or of the Athelings who "won Eng- 
land, and refused not the hard sword-play," still 
furnish a large contingent to our travellers and 
emigrants. We shall see presently that that was 
the physical type of the Germans who took part in 
the overthrow of the Roman Empire, and in what 
their countrymen — it would be a little too bold to 
say "their descendants" — call the Wandering of 
Nations (Volkswanderung) ; and it would seem to 
have been also that of the leaders, at least, of the 
Gauls, who colonised Galatia and brought home the 
treasures of Greece and Italy to Toulouse; and it 
has at present more representatives among the 
Scandinavians and ourselves than among other 
peoples. In this way, and by the sparing of the tall 
youths in the Australian life of open air and abund- 
ant food, one might account for the prevalence of 

34 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

tall, fair types among the colonial-born (the " corn- 
stalks"), a prevalence which is generally asserted, 
and which accords with my own observation. 

The direct influence of the kind or quality of 
food, apart from its sufficiency or insufficiency in 
quality, was a favourite point among the philos- 
ophers of the last century. The mild Hindu was 
supposed to owe his postulated mildness to a diet 
of rice, the Briton his martial ferocity to beef and 
beer. Some of our modern vegetarians make use of 
this line of argument. It would be easy, of course, 
to cite countervailing instances. Thus the peaceful 
Eskimos are perforce and exclusively eaters of fish 
and flesh : while the Maoris, the Fijians, the Fans, 
all ruthless cannibals, were the outcome of genera- 
tions of habitual vegetarianism. Let us look rather 
at the physical side, which our high-flown ancestors 
rather neglected. Can the nature or abundance of 
food alter the colour or form of the individual? 
and, if so, can the alterations be transmitted to his 
descendants ? 

I have never happened to see this question of 
colour-change in man by food discussed ; though 
I have little doubt that it has been so. It is 
confidently stated that the plumage of canaries 
and some other singing-birds can be considerably 
altered, in the direction of red or orange, by feed- 
ing them with spicy stimulating food, red pepper 
and the like. Possibly the red colouring matter 
may be transmitted from the food to the feathers, 
or perhaps some change in the minute structure of 
the plumes may be brought about. Anyhow, I am 

The Aryan Question — Variation of Type. 35 

informed that the beautiful colours of feathers are 
due more to the lamellar structural arrangement 
than to a deposit of pigment, which gives most 
of the colour to human skin and hair. Still, it 
seems quite possible that the production of pig- 
ment might be increased by a diet that mildly 
stimulated the organs which produce it. It is 
apparently lessened in wasting disease. 

As to form, the probability is certainly greater. 
Robert Gordon Latham thought that both form 
and colour might in some degree depend on the 
geological structure of the habitat, and advised me, 
when I was collecting the materials for my work on 
the Stature and Bulk of Man in the British Isles, 
to pay particular attention to the carboniferous 
limestone. I was not successful in making out any- 
thing like what he expected : in a country like ours, 
where comparatively little of the food consumed is 
raised on the spot, the differences between the pro- 
ductions of several geological districts are not so 
likely to be operative as in other lands ; though the 
absence or abundance of lime and magnesia in the 
drinking-water might be equally so here as else- 
where. Durand de Gros finds physical differences 
between the people of the calcareous and the 
granitic parts of the Rouergue (in the south of 
France), which he cannot account for by difference 
of race: the dwellers in the former are, as one 
would expect, the better developed, while those 
in the Segalas, the granitic country, are smaller, 
inferior in form and complexion, less strong but 
more active. He thinks that he finds a difference 

36 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

even in the colour of the hair, the Segalas men 
being the darker; but that may depend on the 
seizure of the better land by the more vigorous 
and fairer race. 

But may not the superabundance of lime in food 
and water tell also on the form of the skull ? We 
know that in rickets the deficiency or malassimila- 
tion of lime leads, among other consequences, to 
deformity of the skull in the way of greater round- 
ness. This is due to the thinness of the bones and 
to defective or postponed ossification of the sutures. 
On the other hand, excess of phosphate of lime in 
food seems to conduce to good physical develop- 
ment. Thus in Switzerland the most robust men 
are found in Nidwalden and Ticino, two cantons 
which agree in only one discoverable point, viz., 
the great consumption of cheese, the aliment 
most rich in phosphate of lime. "Then," says 
Schaaffhausen, "may not a superabundance of 
phosphate of lime in the food, such as would 
be apt to occur among a wild uncivilised [hunt- 
ing and pastoral.''] people, lead to premature ossifi- 
cation of the cranial sutures and thus to contraction 
of breadth and increase of length of skull, which 
is precisely what we find in the old long-headed 
denizens of Central Europe." The only objection 
that I can see is that the Mongols and other races 
of Central Asia, who live very much in the manner 
contemplated, feeding on flesh and milk, have not 
long but broad and round skulls. 



Opinions of contemporary anthropologists — Kollman's five per- 
manent European types — Deniker on importance of hair as a 
character — Schaaffhauaen on inferiority of primitive man and 
of the longheaded type — Ancient types : the Canstatt : the 
Cro-magnon : the Eskimo — Neolithic period : brachykephals 
abroad ; none in Britain — Bronze periods — Swarming of suc- 
cessive races : Phoenicians, Greeks, Gauls, Romans, Teutons, 
Saracens, Slavs, Turco-mongols. 

TJAVING touched lightly the nature of the agents 
-Li- which may be supposed to influence and alter 
the physical aspect of mankind, let us now enquire 
what are the opinions of anthropologists as to their 
actual potency. These opinions differ very widely. 
I will indicate what may be considered the extreme 
views, both held by men of light and leading. Thus, 
Kollmann of Basel expresses himself to the following 
effect : — 

" Many observations have been made use of as 
indications of a power in external influences, 
slow in action indeed, but undeniable ; and some 
have ascribed very great scope to the variability 
of European types since their appearance at the 
diluvial period until now. It is, however, ques- 
tionable whether any kind of modifying changes 
in the typical peculiarities of the skeleton, or the 
more prominent bodily features, have really oc- 

38 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

curred. Their race-characters were in my belief 
already so settled and confirmed when the Euro- 
pean races first arrived here, that they remain 
constant under the most powerful modifying 
agencies, and that the whole period which has 
since elapsed has not been sufficient to produce 
even moderate changes." 

The very considerable differences in physical 
aspect which we daily observe within the limits of 
a single nationality are due, in his opinion, to mix- 
ture of blood, the actual limits of variation in a pure 
race being comparatively narrow. He recognizes 
five separate race-types in Europe, which he dis- 
criminates according to the relative lengths and 
breadths of head and face.^ Thus one has a long head 
and a narrow face : this type preponderated greatly 
in the ancient Germans, and specimens of it are very 
common in the British Isles. Another has a long 
head but a broad face, narrow orbits, and a dyshar- 
monic type: this was the old Cro-magnon race of 
the caves of Perigord, in France. The broad-headed 
long-faced type is nowadays the prevailing one in 
the Tyrol and Bavaria proper. The type with both 
broad head and broad face prevails among the Lapps 
and in the Caucasus; and wherever Mongoloid tribes 
have settled in force, as in parts of Eastern Europe. 

1 It may as well be noted here that Anders Retzius, who first divided 
mankind into longheads and shortheads, dolichokephals and brachy- 
kephals, put the limit of the two at a breadth equal to 80 per cent, 
of the length. Nowadays, those with ratios between 75 and 80 are 
reckoned as intermediate, those beyond 85 are called hyperbrachy- 
kephals, and so forth. The distinction of long and short faces is made 
on a similar principle, i.e., it depends on the relative, not the absolute, 
length and breadth of the face. 

Variation of Type. 39 

The mesokephalic (shall we say middle-headed, or 
having skulls of medium breadth?) with a broad 
face, occurred among the prehistoric peoples : the 
well-known skull from the Judge's Cave at Gib- 
raltar may have belonged to it : in the historic 
period it was common among the Helvetii, and at 
the present day among the Franconian and Thur- 
ingean Germans. But what Kollmann chiefly in- 
sists on is, that all these types occurred in Europe 
at early periods, that even then, every community, 
so far as we can judge, included representatives of 
several or all of them, and that such is the case still, 
the types intertwining like the strands of a rope, 
but seldom, or with the utmost slowness, mingling 
like the waters of so many rivers. 

De Quatrefages says, "The companions of the 
Mammoth and Reindeer have not disappeared, they 
are still among us." Of that I entertain no doubt : 
I have myself, once and again, encountered in the 
flesh the man of Neanderthal; but Kollmann goes 
further: he says — "The European in all his varieties 
or races is ready and fit for anything, whenever we 
drag his bones to the daylight from under the earth- 
crust; he was ready when he kept company with 
the Mammoth. He had nothing inferior, neither in 
the build of his braincase, nor in the formation of 
his face, in itself, but was ' homo sapiens ' in his best 
form already in the diluvium, then again in the 
Reindeertide, and in the pile-dwellings. If we are 
ever to find out anything about the differentiation 
of man into sub-species and races, we must go fur- 
ther back, perhaps into the Miocene age." 

40 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Let me here say, parenthetically, of Kollmann's 
five types, that though there is much to be said in 
their favour, they appear to me somewhat too arbi- 
trary in their limitations, and too few in number. 
Thus we have in Britain, for example, two varieties 
of his leptoprosopic dolichokephalic (long-headed 
and long-faced type), discriminated in several points, 
and particularly, as a rule, in colour : the one is of 
Anglo-Saxon, the other probably of Iberian origin. 
Of the colour of prehistoric races we can unfortun- 
ately know nothing, except by inference ; even of 
that of early historic ones but little; for hair, though 
one of the least destructible of animal tissues, is 
liable, under some circumstances, to post-mortem 
changes of colour. But as to its importance in 
classification, let us hear Deniker, a great authority 
in that department. " On the whole, it seems to us 
that the measurements of different parts of the body 
constitute very good characters of the second and 
third order, we believe we are in the right in main- 
taining that the characters of the primary divisions 
(of mankind) ought to be drawn from the nature of 
the hair and the colour of the skin." 

To return. Schaaffhausen, differing from Koll- 
mann, enumerates the various marks of inferiority, 
the various reminders of simian anatomical features, 
which he finds among the skulls of primeval men, 
and more than one of which are apt to be found 
combined in the early long-headed races. Among 
these are the receding forehead with swollen eye- 
brow ridges, as in the Neanderthal and Spy and 
Briix men, and the underjaw wanting in chin, as 

Variation of Type. 41 

in the La Naulette specimen. "With a receding 
forehead are generally associated," he says, "a pro- 
minent muzzle, large teeth, high-placed temporal 
lines, strong occipital ridges, simple sutures, small 
cranial capacity. In primitive longheads the tem- 
poral squama or scale often reaches to the frontal, 
instead of being separated by the wing of the 
sphenoid bone; and this often occurs also in African 
negroes, in Australians, Peruvians, and Mongols ; it 
occurs also in anthropoid apes, except in orangs. 
Or sometimes, though it does not reach so far, yet 
it is long and low." Other low characters are, says 
Schaaffhausen, a short sagittal suture, a narrow, flat 
frontal : so too the occipital scale standing out like a 
bowl from the back of the head (baothrokephaly), and 
the prominent parietal bosses, for these are remains 
of childish forms. (The bowl-like protuberance, as 
we shall see, is very characteristic of the Alemannic 
conquerors of Swabia and Switzerland.) Retzius 
thought, it is true, that the projecting occiput, 
being a result of greater development of the pos- 
terior lobe, indicated a noble or advanced type ; but 
this Schaaffhausen disputes. Having the greatest 
breadth in the parietal region is a low feature : this 
is found in the famous skull of Engis, as well as in 
Australians. Malay skulls, which belong to a low 
form of shorthead, have also the greatest breadth 
near the parietal bosses. A long flat extending 
from below these bosses to the temples rank low; 
he means here, apparently, flatness of the temporo- 
frontal region, which is very general among the 
Gael, whether Irish or Scottish, and was common 


42 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

among Romano-Britons, but much less so among 
the Saxon English and Scandinavians. 

Add to these, flatness of the floor of the nostrils, 
flat nasal bones,^ large molar teeth, elliptic palate, 
small occipital tuberosity (for the tuberosity has to 
do with the erect position). Simplicity of sutures, 
and early closing thereof, go with low organization: 
this simplicity was commoner among fossil dogs 
than among modern house dogs, and it is found in 
several of the prehistoric long skulls, as those of 
Engis and Nieder-Ingelheim, and in the Batavus 
Genuinus of Blumenbach. 

Schaaffhausen thinks, moreover, that the tem- 
poral muscles, and indeed the other kephalic muscles, 
all work towards lengthening of the skull; and 
large temporal muscles go with the use of the coarse 
food of the savage life. Finally, he says that though 
in some cases the skull may grow large and broad 
simply from want of lime, the head does acquire 
that last increase of size and development which 
corresponds to increase of intelligence, through an 
enlargement in breadth. Against this I should be 
disposed to make use of the fact that adult heads 
are relatively to their length narrower than those of 
children ; but perhaps Schaaffhausen would account 
for that by muscular action. I will here simply 
mention some varieties in other parts of the skele- 
ton, which occur frequently or usually in some 
ancient races, whereas they are now rare. Such are 

1 1 think most ancient skulls had good and prominent noses ; but 
the nasal bones are seldom cognizable. 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 43 

the pilaster-, or columnar-femur, the flattened tibia 
(platyknemia), the perforation of the lower humerus, 
forms whose utility has apparently ceased, but which 
are not necessarily to be called low. 

To sum up this view of the transformation 
question, "Der Mensch," says Buschan, reviewing 
Schaaffhausen, "ist nichts weniger als ein Dauer- 
typus." Man is in nowise an unchangeable entity. 

Before proceeding to divide Europe into great 
historical provinces, on a basis partly political, 
partly ethnological, it may be well to give a brief 
sketch of its general anthropological history, es- 
pecially of that portion of such history as was 
prior to the formation of the present divisions and 

Our knowledge of this is more advanced as re- 
gards the west and south-west, partly because in 
the quaternary period the north and east were 
not inhabited, partly because civilization is more 
advanced and science more cultivated in the west 
and north-west ; and as France, Belgium, and por- 
tions of the countries lying next to the east of 
them, combine both these advantages, it is here 
that anthropological history may be said to begin, 
and here only that plausible attempts have been 
made to minutely subdivide the prehistoric periods, 
in accordance with their archaeological products. 

The general results may be thus stated: The 
oldest human forms that have been found and 
located geographically, or rather palaeontologically, 
with some approach to certitude, are long-headed — 
dolichokephalic, and that very distinctly. And we 

44 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

may go so far as to say that all, or almost all the 
crania may be distributed under two types, though 
whether we are entitled to say two races is not 
yet quite clear: the French say so, but Virchow was 
doubtful. The first of these was the Canstatt type, 
so called from the place where the first specimen 
was discovered ; though the Neanderthal skull is a 
much better known example. It is long rather than 
narrow, deficient in height, with thick bones, huge 
frowning brows, low forehead and prominent occi- 
* put, protruding in the form which the German 
anatomists call kiigelig (like a bowl). Some very 
low-type chinless lower jaws have been ascribed to 
this type ; but the attribution is not always clear : 
in the modern skulls which have been supposed to 
reproduce the type the chin is often strong and pro- 
minent. Most of these skulls have been found in 
caves in the mountain limestone ; and it may be 
suggested, that some of their peculiarities may 
have been connected with too great a supply of 
calcareous salts, whence perhaps the premature 
closing (synostosis) of the sagittal suture and the 
enormous development of the bony browridges.^ 

The other long type is that called the Cro- 
magnon. Here also the head is long, narrow rela- 
tively rather than absolutely, moderate in height; 
the capacity is often large compared with modern 
averages; the forehead is well developed, but the 
browridges not so large as in the Canstatt type. 

^ Barnard Davis ascribed most of the peculiarities of the Neanderthal 
skull to premature synostosis. 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 45 

The occiput is large and capacious, but has not the 
marked protuberance just now described. The 
orbits are squarely formed and low; so that the 
eyes were probably narrow (as in many Irishmen), 
the nose of medium breadth (mesorhine). The 
limbs were robust; but the femur and tibia ex- 
hibited the pilastral and platyknemic forms. These 
men may have been savages; but they were capable 
savages, at least. The frontal development is dis- 
tinctively better than in the Canstatt types. 

There are probably other quaternary skull forms 
yet to be discovered. In fact, Professor Testut of 
Lyons has given us an elaborate memoir on one 
such, discovered at Chancelade. It belonged to 
a man of small stature, but it is large and long, 
differs decidedly from either the Canstatt or the 
Cro-magnon form, and seems to resemble the 
well-known Eskimo variety. You may be aware 
that our own Boyd-Dawkins published, years ago, 
his conjecture that the Eskimos, or a branch of 
them, had once dwelt in north-western Europe. 

There are others, too, who think there was a 
chasm, an absolute hiatus, between these palaeo- 
lithic people and those who followed them ; that 
the former perished utterly or wandered away 
before the neolithic folk arrived, bringing with 
them the beginnings of civilisation. I don't think 
anyone on the Continent now holds that view. 
Huxley pronounced against it, though not very 
strongly. For myself, I am not a geologist, and 
perhaps cannot appreciate the evidence from that 
side; but I know that these old types are repre- 

46 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

sented among us at the present day, and I believe it 
is by right of heredity. St. Mansuy of Toul, and 
Kai Lykke, a famous Danish noble, belonged to that 
of Canstatt, and so, it is said, did King Robert 
Bruce, though he had good brains as well as thews 
and sinews.^ I have seen in the flesh, as I said just 
now, more than one exquisite example of it ; and of 
the Cro-magnon I have seen a great many, without 
having gone so far as the Canary Islands to look for 

"Nor need we blush," said the noble Broca, 
" to own for ancestors those rude quaternary 
hunters who knew how to conquer animals more 
terrible and more real than the monsters com- 
bated by Hercules, and who, first in the world, 
long before the Assyrians and the Egyptians, lit 
the torch of art. They knew not electricity nor 
steam ; they were not armed with metallic wea- 
pons and with gunpowder; but, weak as they 
were, and with weapons of stone only, they sus- 
tained against nature a struggle that was not 
without grandeur ; and the progress which they 
realised at the cost of such efforts, prepared the 
soil on which civilisation was to grow." 

These were the two races, if two they were, to 
which the great majority of quaternary crania may 
be referred, and it seems hardly likely, now, that 
this conclusion will be disturbed, that longheads 
constituted the chief population of Western Europe 
in those times. Still, the broadheads, the brachy 

^ The skull of Bruce has prominent brows and a receding forehead, 
but its breadth does not consist with the Canstatt type. 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 47 

kephals, were not unrepresented, at least in the 
latter part of the period. The palaeolithic antiquity 
of a strongly brachykephalic skull found at Nagy 
Szap in Hungary, is said to be unimpeachable ; and 
in Belgium, in the reindeer period, those found by 
Dupont in the neighbourhood of Furfooz are at 
least on the confines of brachykephaly, and in other 
respects are of an entirely different type to any of 
the quaternary long skulls. In Germany, too, 
brachykephalic skulls are said to have been dug out 
of the loess. 

With the period of recency in geology, and that 
of polished stone in archaeology, we gain a great 
access of light, and in some countries an abundance 
of material. Whereas the two principal long-headed 
types had been scattered here and there, apparently 
dove-tailing with each other, we now find a central 
type apparently derived from the Cro-magnon, 
though softened in its more striking characteristics, 
predominating in France, probably in Spain, and 
certainly in Britain, where the principal occupants 
of the longbarrows nearly always display it. An- 
other, having a relation to that of Canstatt, seems 
to abound in the more northern countries, in 
Germany and Sweden and through all the great 
plain of northern and eastern-central Europe. The 
brachykephals, whether or not they have received 
an accession from the east, whether or not it is they 
who have now brought our domestic animals and 
cultivated plants from Asia, are certainly much 
more in evidence; in central France they have con- 
tests with the indigenous longheads, over whom 

48 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

they seem to prevail : there and in Italy they mix 
with their predecessors; and one may find in one 
grave skulls with breadth-indices from little over 
70 to nearly 90, a thing hardly conceivable in the 
same race unless from the intervention of disease. 
In the dolmens of France, in the pile-works or lake 
villages of Switzerland, in the caves of higher Bel- 
gium, in the kitchen-middens and tumuli of Scan- 
dinavia, in the Hiinnebetten or Giant's Graves of 
Germany, we find the same admixture, but never 
in England. Here in Scotland, too, as Sir Daniel 
Wilson pointed out, the form of long skull, which 
he called boat-shaped, prevailed pretty exclusively, 
while the few Irish skulls which may belong to the 
period are also long, and have the modern Hibernian 

We have seen, then, that history in Europe 
generally begins comparatively late, in fact only 
somewhere in the last millennium before our era. 
For a good many years, of course, we had known 
that the domain of history, as distinguished from 
mere tradition and conjecture, extended backwards 
in Mesopotamia and still more decidedly in Egypt, 
far beyond what was the case in Europe. Only in 
the last decade of the nineteenth century did we 
begin to learn, under the auspices of Petrie and 
other Egyptologists, that the area of historical day- 
light might be extended from Egypt and Western 
Asia over the Egean and its western coasts. Under 
Schliemann, Homer, from a purely poetical or 
mythical, assumed a half historic character; and 
under Arthur Evans and Sayce and quite a crowd of 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 49 

skilled workers, the prehistoric in Crete is assuming 
form and solidity. The early observers in this field 
dealt with ethnography rather than with physical 
anthropology; but latterly Myers, Duckworth and 
Hawes have corroborated the conjecture that the 
early Cretans, the " Minoans," were of what most of 
us called the Mediterranean type, resembling the 
early occupants of South Italy and Spain. They 
seem to have been short of stature, lithe of frame, 
and dark of complexion, and their heads were dis- 
tinctly narrow as a rule. It is probable that the 
same race, pushing northwards, occupied the Pelo- 
ponnese and other of the more accessible parts of 
the Balkan peninsula. But before Homer's day 
these primitive Greeks appear to have been sub- 
jected by the Achaeans, a militant Aryan-tongued 
race from the north of Central Europe, at least 
partly blond, and probably also longheaded. On 
them followed the Dorians, probably of Illyrian 
race, and broader in head than the Achaeans or their 
Minoan predecessors. We know that they not only 
dominated large portions of continental Greece, but 
also settled in Crete, where the Sphakiots, a tall 
race inclining to brachykephaly, and occupying 
the western mountains, claim Dorian descent. 
Similarly in the eastern horn of Crete a new ele- 
ment coming from Caria or from somewhere in 
Asia minor where the fundamental breed of man 
was broadheaded, seems to have altered the original 
Minoan, Lybian or Mediterranean head in the 
direction of greater width. 

The introduction of Bronze into Europe does not 


50 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

appear to have been accompanied by that of any new 
element of population, at all events not on a large 
scale. The Phoenicians probably settled in small 
numbers on the coasts where they traded, for ex- 
ample, in Sardinia ; but except in Cornwall, where 
I am inclined to think their type occasionally crops 
up, it is difficult to distinguish any influence they 
might have had from that of the later Saracens. 
The Etruscans had their own skull type, in my 
opinion more Semitic than aught else; but its in- 
fluence was, of course, limited to a small area, and 
belonged rather to a later period. The one country 
where the age of bronze seems really to have been 
ushered in by a new race is our own, where barrows 
or interments that yield objects of bronze, alone or 
with flint, may be reckoned on, where the bodies 
have not been cremated, to yield also short broad 
skulls of a pretty uniform type, almost identical 
with those which are found, though not exclusively, 
in certain stone-age interments in Denmark. 

When we were children, ancient history was pre- 
sented to us in very compendious form, that of a 
succession of Empires pictured in the Book of the 
Prophet Daniel. And the history of Europe since 
the Bronze Age might similarly be portrayed as that 
of the successive swarmings of so many different 
races, some already domiciled within its bounds, 
others having their centre of dispersion outside. 

Thus the Phoenicians, having served themselves 
heirs to the maritime power of the Minoans of 
Crete, explored the coasts, and even settled here 
and there in small trading colonies, and by the mere 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 51 

contact of commerce and eastern civilization sup- 
plied a motive power to break up the existing 
equilibrium. The subsequent beginnings of the 
abortive Carthaginian empire were a further de- 
velopment of Phoenician enterprise, but from what 
we know of their mode of warfare, their employ- 
'ment of mercenaries, etc., it is not likely that much 
of their blood was left to run into the veins even of 
the Sicilians and Sardinians, where, if anywhere, we 
should seek it. Collignon says he cannot find it in 
Tunis, where one would perhaps have expected it to 
be strongest. 

Next come the palmy days of the Greeks, even 
then a mingled strain, of which the ruling element 
seems to have been longheaded and largely blond, 
while the subordinate ones may have been dark. I 
do not quite hold with Ingoldsby — 

" These well-booted Greeks, 
Their Egyptian descent was a question of weeks," 

but think it likely that the intercourse between 
Greece and Egypt was not wholly one-sided. An q 
lUyrian element is certain; a Turanian one prob- 

The Greeks appear to have been, in their best 
days, an extremely prolific race, so much so that 
they were able within a moderate number of gener- 
ations to Hellenize the coasts of Sicily and Lower 
Italy (Magna Graecia) as well as the Ionian and 
neighbouring coasts of Asia, and those of Gyrene 
and of the Cimmerian Bosphorus. 

Of the spread of the Kelts we know very much 

52 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

less : in the first place, we hardly know how to call 
the wandering mercenary warriors who were the 
terror of the civilized south; I just now said "Kelts," 
but will amend the word, and say "Gauls" instead. 
For at some period unknown the longheads of the 
north-east would seem to have avenged their long- 
headed brethren, the men of Cro-magnon and the 
cavern of L'Homme Mort, and their descendants, by 
conquering in turn their brachykephalic conquerors. 
And whereas for a great many centuries the descen- 
dants of these brachykephali are known to have 
been brown of hair and skin, and whereas the 
Romans describe as blond the Gallic invaders of 
Italy and even of Galatia; it is perhaps easiest to 
suppose that they described the military aristocracy 
or caste, and that these, in distant migrations at 
least, did not encumber themselves largely with an 
accompaniment of serfs. Anyhow, the skulls found 
at the celebrated station of Hallstadt in Southern 
Austria, the rich concomitants of which are gener- 
ally believed to indicate a Keltic civilization, and 
to date from many centuries before Christ — these 
skulls are long and might be Galatic, Belgic,or even 
-w Germanic, say some German authorities. Further 

y^ down the Danube we find, in Alexander the Great's 

time, for example, tribes said to be Gaulish and bear- 
ing Keltic names, as the Skordiski and T auriski ; 
and some other tall red-haired warriors further to 
the north-east, such as the Bastarnae, though prob- 
ably German, may have been Galatic. To use an 
argument frequently employed about the Aryan 
question, it seems much more easy to derive the 

Primeval Man— Succession of Races. 53 

Skordiski and their neighbours from Gaul than the 
Gauls from them ; and then the universal consent 
of the old historians went that way. It would seem, 
however, that even before the Gauls occupied or 
dominated Transalpine Gaul, they were seated in 
parts of what we now call Germany, and closely in 
the neighbourhood of some of the true Germans : 
the reasons for believing this are derived partly 
from resemblances of language and partly from the 
minute topography of modern Germany; the ground 
plan of the ancient Keltic and Germanic village 
having been different, and this difference having 
left its mark. 

The next great power to rise on the ruins of the 
Etruscan and Carthaginian, and Greek and Gallic, 
was, of course, the Roman. I have only to do with 
the results on physical anthropology, of its con- 
quests and colonisations, but these were no doubt 
great. The Roma»ns seem to have multiplied enor- 
mously during the growth of their power, much as 
the Greeks had done at the same stage ; moreover, 
their veteran armies, which were employed for 
colonisation, so far as they were not Roman were at 
least Italian, until the culmination of their power. 
The rule is that an anthropological type once in 
possession of the ground is never wholly dispossessed 
or extirpated. " They beheaded," said to me the 
great Broca, "a score or two of the leading men, and 
called it exterminating a tribe." Still, Caesar gives 
us to understand (and he was a more humane con- 
queror than some of them) that he did his worst 
towards the destruction of some tribes. Thus, he 

54 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

says, he sold into slavery the whole survivors of the 
Veneti; but probably many of these enslaved people 
would be purchased and retained by the new pos- 
sessors of the lands; besides, most countries have 
about them a little of the quality of Lome, which 
the Highland freebooter found was " as ill to harry 
as it was to pike a sheep's neck;" and there is 
reason to think there are still Veneti in Morbihan.^ 

The most important piece of evidence, where- 
with I am acquainted, to the permanence of Latin 
colonisation is the following. The Romans are said 
by Livy to have transported 40,000 Ligurians, with 
their families into the vacant tracts of Samnium, 
and to have filled up their places with colonists. 
Now, the Ligurians were believed, mainly on the 
authority and evidence of Nicolucci, to have been 
strongly brachykephalic, as the Piedmontese are to 
this day ; whereas the Romans were mesokephalic 
as a rule, with indices of breadth below 80, and the 
modern Roman skulls are just what the old ones 

But the modern inhabitants of the Ligurian coast, 
from Savona to Lucca, are mesokephalic, and have 
narrower heads than any other people in Northern 
Italy, as Ridolfo Livy has shewn. I can see two 
other possible explanations of this fact, but the one 
I have suggested (colonization from Southern or 
Middle Italy) seems the easiest. 

The frequently dark complexions of the inhabi- 
tants of the old Roman cities on the Rhine may 

^ Topinard's statistics of colour point that way. 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 55 

possibly be derived partly from old Italian colonisa- 
tion. In the later ages of the Roman power, when 
the soldiery were gathered from all the subject 
nations fit for service, colonisation meant the mix- 
ing of one nationality with another on a very small 
scale. Minute enquiry might very probably, in 
some instances, detect permanent results, but I am 
not aware of any; and where the change was a 
violent one in respect of climate, such as that from 
Mauritania or Dalmatia to Britain, the descendants 
of the colonists may have gradually dwindled away. 
The next race to rise into importance was the 
Teutonic ; and its migrations, when it had once 
begun to overcome the resistance of the Roman 
Empire, were on an enormous scale, well deserving 
the name the Germans give to them — the Wander- 
ing of the Peoples. Here, again, the pressure of an 
increasing population had something to do with the 
movement, yet not everything, for many of the 
tribes appear to have abandoned their previous ter- 
ritories en masse ; ^ but Germany was not at that 
time able to support a very large population. The 
net result of all the struggles of the fifth and sixth 
century was greatly to abridge the area occupied 
by the German language and, probably, the area in 
which the German physical type, the Graverow 
type, preponderated. More was abandoned on the 
east than was gained in the west and south. The 
Franks were comparatively few in number and 

^ Thus the Angles, according to Bede, and the Saxons who accom- 
panied the Lombards to Italy. 

56 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

spread over a large area peopled by subject aliens. 
Nor was the case very much different with the 
Visigoths and Longobards : the numbers of the 
former were, I have no doubt, greatly exaggerated, 
nor do I believe that Lombardy before its conquest 
by Alboin was so thoroughly depopulated as Ridge- 
way thinks. Otherwise the Longobards would have 
retained their language, and a majority, instead of 
a minority, would have enjoyed the privileges of 
Longobardic law. The Burgundians may have been 
a little more numerous in proportion to their sub- 
jects ; but they were content with one-third of the 
land, which may fairly be taken as proof that the 
Gallorom-ans very largely outnumbered them. In 
the result the Burgundians soon lost their language; 
their well-defined form of head, which was long, 
with a breadth index of about 74 or 75, and very 
similar to that of the Anglo-Saxon, has apparently 
disappeared, the heads in modern Burgundy and 
Franche Comte being extremely broad; but their 
fair complexion is still conspicuous; and whereas 
Sidonius ApoUinaris talked of them as " greasy 
sevenfoot giants," Franche Comte still supplies the 
French army with its tallest grenadiers. 

But the whole south-western frontier of the 
German language seems to have been really ad- 
vanced, the Saxons, Frisians, and Salian Franks 
having occupied Flanders and Brabant, the Ripu- 
arian Franks the right and left banks of the Middle 
Rhine and the Moselle, the Alemanni Alsace, 
Swabia, and after Swabia North-eastern and Cen- 
tral Switzerland, and the Marcomanni (probably) 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 57 

Bavaria. In all these cases the new acquisitions 
were conterminous with the old holdings; and in 
some of them there is more or less reason to think 
that the invaders re-occupied ground which had 
been won by the Romans from their own kindred : 
I have said more or less reason — I should myself say 
less rather than more. The result is that Flanders 
and most of Brabant are thoroughly Germanic — the 
Electorates (Treves, Cologne, and Mayence) rather 
less so, at least in their western parts; Alsace, 
Swabia, Bavaria, and Central Switzerland more 
German than otherwise in colour, but in headform 
more Keltic or Rhoetian. 

But the greatest of the German conquests, from 
the racial point of view, was that of our own country 
(or shall we say of Eastern Britain), which was 
largely Saxonised in blood as well as in language 
and social state ; while the western parts of the 
British Isles, including Ireland, have been Saxonised, 
if at all, more by infection and contact than by 
change of blood. 

As a second wave of Teutonic conquest, we may 
reckon the Scandinavian, which, however, did not 
begin until long after the Volkswanderung of the 
Germans themselves had come to an end. Here, 
again, the movement must have coincided with a 
rapid increase of population; but it was too great 
an effort to continue; and though it did not lead 
to an actual curtailment of the area of the stock 
and language as the Volkswanderung did, it ended 
in such thorough exhaustion of the parent stock 
that it continued to be of little importance for cen- 

58 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

turies. Iceland, Shetland, Orkney, Caithness, were 
all that the movement added to the Scandinavian 
language area, but in many other parts of these 
islands it left its mark more or less plainly on 
the physical type ; so it was in the Hebrides, 
especially in the Lews, m Man, in Cumberland and 
Westmoreland, and the West Border, very strongly ; 
in Yorkshire, and along the east coast of Scotland, 
in Lincolnshire, Nottinghamshire, East Norfolk and 
adjoining districts, perhaps also in Pembrokeshire, 
certainly about Wexford and Waterford. On the 
Continent it affected the coast of Normandy, and 
to a less degree the interior. Collignon even thinks 
he sees its traces over a large tract of country on 
and about the Middle Loire ; and finally, it is said 
to be visible in the nobility of Sicily and Southern 

South of the Baltic, too, the Germanic wave of 
conquest is remarkable in having been double; 
several centuries after the Volkswanderung had 
ceased, population growing dense, as it seems al- 
ways to do in the early stages of the civilisation 
of capable races, the Saxons, Frisians, and even the 
Flemings, set themselves to reconquer those exten- 
sive territories east of the Elbe, the Hartz, the 
Thuringian mountains, and the Upper Main, which 
they or their kindred had relinquished long ago to 
the Wends; and gradually, by force, fraud, com- 
merce, or peaceable colonisation of empty spaces, 
they re-Germanised pretty thoroughly a large por- 
tion of them. The physical type of the tribes they 
submerged was apparently very like their own, but 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 59 

we must not forget the possibility that weak and 
scattered remnants of the Germans had been left 
behind in the great migration, and lost in the then 
flowing tide of Slavonism. Buschan tells me he 
thinks this a probable explanation of the fact that \ 
the Cassubians (still Slav in speech), and the other ' 
inhabitants of Koslin, the eastermost province of ' 
Pomerania, constitute one of the most blond areas 
of Germany. 

Next, after the great or earlier Germanic move- 
ment, and previous to that last spoken of, was the 
spread of Saracenic conquest. The extent of the 
extreme wave of this is scarcely realised ; not only 
did the Moorish armies penetrate almost to the 
Loire, but they ascended the Rhone valley, occupied 
for a long period some of the passes of the high 
Alps, possessed Sicily, plundered the coasts of Italy, 
and settled there in small communities. In France, 
according to Lagneau, they are thought to have 
settled at Aubusson after their great defeat by 
Charles Martel, and perhaps made there the first 
carpet in Europe.^ 

The change they wrought in the physique of the 
Spanish population was probably not very great. 
The Semitic element in them was not altogether 
new to the coasts, at least, of Spain, and the Berber 
element was identical, or nearly so, with the primi- 
tive Iberian. 

Perhaps the expansion of the Slavs should have 
been mentioned before that of the Saracens; it 

' For *' Africa begins at the Pyrenees," as Dumas said. 

60 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

began earlier, but continued longer and later, and, 
like that of the Germans, after a considerable inter- 
ruption, in this case owing to the intercalation of 
the Tartar dominion, it recommenced, to continue 
almost to our own day. Poland,^ and the country 
between the Carpathians and the Dnieper, seem to 
have been the original occupation of the Slavs; 
thence, on the westward movement of the Germans, 
they spread ocross the Oder and the Elbe and to 
the mouths of the Vistula ; they occupied the vacant 
Bohemia, and passed over Pannonia and lUyria to 
the Adriatic, and either by themselves, or under 
Bulgarian dominion, occupied also more or less 
completely almost the whole of the Balkan penin- 
sula. By about the ninth century, spreading over 
or among the Finnish tribes, they had established 
themselves at Novgorod, long the chief seat of 
their power and commerce, and had apparently 
penetrated also to the Oka and the Upper Volga. 
They were not a military people, but a ruling 
and fighting case was supplied to them by the 
Varangans from Scandinavia. Thereafter their 
northward expansion continued uninterruptedly ; 
that to the south-east, however, was first checked 
and then completely arrested by the advent and rise 
to power of successive hordes of Turks, of which 
the latest included the Mongols of Batu Khan. 
Meanwhile the Germans re-occupied, as was just 
now mentioned, most of the territory which had 

' The Lygii, whom Tacitus describes as Germans, were pretty cer- 
tainly the Lekhs (Poles). This was one of Latham's happy conjectures. 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 61 

once been their own ; the settlement of the Magyars, 
and later the growth of the Roumans, cut off the 
southern division of the Slavs from the northern, 
and the former were somewhat circumscribed by 
the arrival of the Ottomans, and by the revival of 
the Greeks and Albanians. 

The tide of conquest to which I come last, con- 
sisted of many waves, one of which, indeed, was 
coeval with the Volkwanderung ; nay, it may be 
that the very first such wave was much earlier even 
than that. It is very difficult to say when the first 
tribe of Turkish race entered Europe. Who or what 
were the Etruscans, the Agathyrsi, the Kimmerians, 
the Scythians, the Sarmatians, the Alans .'' There 
is not one of these nations but has been conjectured 
to be Turkish by some one or other. Were the 
manners and politics of the Scythians and Sarma- 
tians, which have a very Central-Asian or Turanian 
look, the product of their life on the grassy steppes 
of Southern Russia? or had they brought them 
ready-made from Turkestan? We do not know. 
I will return to the Scythians in a future lecture. 

In the latter part of the fourth century appeared 
the Huns, Mongoloid in type and in mode of life, 
whatever they were in tongue and in blood. That 
they had much to do with the inception of the 
Volkswanderung is clear; the terror of them drove 
the Visigoths across the Danube, perhaps the Sueves 
and Alans across the Rhine, nay, possibly, as the 
Quaens fled before the alarm of the Tartars into 
Norway, so may the Angles have fled before that of 
Huns into England. When their power collapsed 

62 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

they were not extinguished : the next wave of 
nomads, the Avars, incorporated most of them. 
The Avars, if not entirely Turkish, were at least 
Turanian. Then followed the Bulgarians, a Finnish 
race from the Volga, and settled among and ruled 
over the Southern Slavs; but some of them wan- 
dered as far as South Italy. Next the Hungarians, 
the Magyars, from the same neighbourhood, but 
mixed somewhat with Turkish blood, who, settling 
in Hungary, no doubt incorporated the relics of the 
Avars. Then the Khazars, Turks of a high type, 
that is, may be, with an Aryan admixture. Then 
the Patsinaks, Petchenegs, or Besses, Turks of a 
lower civilization, who by much etymological tor- 
ture are found to have given name to Bessarabia. 
Then the Polovtsi or Khomans, also undoubted 
Turks, who settled on the Dnieper, so far as nomads 
could settle; and after them the most terrible of all, 
the so miscalled Tartars, a mass of broken Turkish 
tribes with a nucleus of veritable Mongols, who 
destroyed or incorporated all the earlier Turkish 
colonists of southern Russia, and, if half that is told 
of them is to be believed, went nigh to destroying 
the Russians, Poles, and Hungarians. 

With the exception of the Ottoman Turks, who 
have been a great power in Europe, but scarcely 
anywhere, except in Eastern Bulgaria, in Thessaly, 
in some parts of Roumelia, and in a few large 
towns, a considerable element in the population, 
and the Gypsies, an Upper Indian tribe of totally 
different type from the Turks or Finns, in fact 
more Aryan than aught else, there have been no 

Primeval Man — Succession of Races. 63 

more invasions from Asia since that of Batu Khan ; 
for Tamerlane's victorious campaigns against Tok- 
tamish, Khan of the Golden Horde, and Lord of 
Russia, were nothing but campaigns, and led to 
no settlement. The tide has long been running 
eastward : the Turanian flood has been ebbing ; 
Aryan and Finnish islands have appeared among its 
receding waves, and have gradually coalesced until 
only a few pools are left here and there. The 
Tartars of Kasan and of the Crimea, the few that 
are left, are the most civilised peasantry in Russia ; 
and the very fine type of the Roumelian Osmanli is 
rapidly dwindling away. / 



Russia — The Scythians — Spread of the Slavs — Physical characters 
of the Finns — The Marians — The Mongol invasion — Compo- 
sition of the modern Russian people — The Lithuanians — Ugrian 
and Tartar tribes — The ancient occupants of the Balkan pen- 
insula — The Hellenes — Modern descendants of the Thraciana 
and Illyrians. , 

WE have not much material of very early dates 
from Russia ; the earliest probably comes 
from the kitchen-middens on the Baltic, whence 
some every short and broad skulls are reported to 
have been gotten. 

Thus we have in Russia something like the same 
difficulty that we have in the west. Long-heads — 
long and very narrow — may have prevailed ; but 
short ones did occur, and were not merely the pro- 
duct of rickets or hydrocephalus, but indicate the 
existence of a brachykephalic race or race element. 
Almost all parts of Russia abound with kurgans or 
tumuli of different kinds, mostly sepulchral. Of 
these probably the oldest are in the south, and are 
supposed to belong to the Scythian period. The 
few skulls got from them are mostly long, but in 
the rich barrow-tomb of a Scythian king, described 
by Von Baer, the heads which he took to belong 
to the ruling race yielded an average index of 81. 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 65 

The philological evidence is thought to point 
rather to the Iranian affinity of the Scythians; but 
the evidence of these skulls, and that given by Hip- 
pocrates as to their physique, in conjunction with 
their character and history, make me think that 
they were Turanian. And I must plead guilty to 
the heresy, in spite of Professor Rhys, of believing 
the Kimmerians, the sons of Gomer, to have been 
either Kelts or Gauls, not unrelated to the Kymri 
of Wales and to our own Strath-clyde Welshmen. 

The growth of the broad-headed element is shown 
in the following table by Bogdanof ; it relates to the 
Government of Kiev : — 

D'lliclio. Mesc. Bnichj'. 

Scytho-Sarmatian Period, 6 11 

Early Slavish Period, - - 9 2 7 

9th to 18th Century, - - 10 6 6 

Here the early population, which may have been 
Finnish, Germanic, Lithuanian, Sarmatic— -who can 
tell .'* — is replaced by the Slavs with their moderately 
broad heads ; but once established, the Slavish type 
does not seem to have varied much. The anthro- 
pological history of Russia, from, say A.D. 4 or 5G0 
up to 1200, may be summed up thus : 1, Emigration or 
vanishing of Germanic and Sarmatic tribes, Goths, 
Alans, perhaps Rhoxalani ; 2, Spread of the Slavs 
from their old centre, supposed to have been Poland, 
Galicia, Volhynia, over all Western, Central, and 
North-western Russia, destroying or rather incor- 
porating the numerous Finnish tribes who were 
their predecessors, or in some instances pushing 
them out of their old seats ; whence, 3rd, Migration 

66 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

of some of the Finns towards the west, those of the 
Tavistian section, whose modern descendants are 
mostly fair and with moderate breadth -indices, 
moving into Finland to mix with the Swedes, or 
into Esthonia, whence they expelled the Letts, a 
Lithuanic, Aryan people — those of the Karelian 
division, generally darker in hair, and broader in 
head, also moving westwards, but in the rear of 
their brethren. 

Nothing is more calculated to throw doubt on 
the extremely high valuation of skull-breadth as an 
indication of race, than the phenomena of that kind 
in the Finnish tribes. For there is a certain amount 
of general physical resemblance among them all: 
it is not merely that their languages are related; 
yet nevertheless they vary extremely in index of 
breadth ; thus the Lapps stand at about 84*7 (Hallsten 
says 86'5, Von der Horck, 86'5), the Chuds at 833, 
the Finns of Karelia about 82, of Tavastland, 80,^ 
which is also that of some skulls from ancient 
Kurgans at Saivatapala; the Esths stand about 78; 
the Liefs, their nearest kindred, the same ; the Vesses, 
and Vots, 80, according to Mainow, but Iwanowski 
makes the heads of the latter rather longer. The 
same kind of facts are encountered among the 
Oriental Finns, but the details of these may as 
well be deferred until after the consideration of 
the great Tartar invasion, which complicated the 
anthropology of eastern Russia considerably. The 
facial physiognomy seems to be more characteristic 

'See Gustav Retzius as to the Finlanders. 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 67 

than the cranial. The skull usually gives the im- 
pression of squareness, whether viewed from above 
or from behind, but in some tribes, and particularly 
in the Bulgarians, it may be styled cylindrical. The 
face is broad in proportion to its length, from the 
development of the cheekbones; the brows level 
and but little prominent, the orbital openings wide 
and low, the eyes narrow and often a little obliquely 
set, the nose straight or hollow and prominent at 
the tip if anywhere. These points seem to be com- 
mon to most if not all of the Finnish or Ugrian 
tribes ; they appear, for example, in the Mordwins, 
and not unfrequently in the Bulgarians, though 
these last are much mixed with Turkish as well as 
still more largely with Slavic blood. 

Coloration varies in all these tribes. In the 
Esthonians proper the hair is said to be generally 
yellow, or yellowish brown, and straight ; this is a 
race-character. The temperament seems to be a 
mixture of the lymphatic and melancholic; Von 
Baer remarks that some are truly melancholic, and 
that these are apt to have black hair ; they are said, 
accordingly, to be patient, slow to anger, self- 
restrained, but persevering, and formidable when 
once roused. All this again seems to be common to 
almost all the Ugrian race. 

The Merians, who of all the greater Ugrian 
tribes we know, were earliest and most completely 
Russianized, though I have little doubt that others 
had disappeared so early that their very names had 
been lost — the Merians who inhabited the central 
provinces around Moscow have been minutely 

68 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

studied as to their ethnology, their arts and modes 
of life, by Count Uvarof, who opened an immense 
number of their sepulchral barrows or kurgans. 
Their name is not mentioned in history later than 
A.D. 907, and doubtless they were already by that 
time much mixed with Russians. Many localities 
retain the names they gave, much, let us say, as 
localities in Aberdeenshire or Fife retain their old 
Keltic names; this permanence of names is more 
likely to occur where the relations between the 
waxing and the waning race have been friendly on 
the whole, as was probably the case between the 
Merians and the Russians. For though the Merians 
were tall and strong (their stature was from 5ft. 6in. 
to 5ft. lOin.), they were a pacific people, and though 
their civilization was by no means of low type, 
they were poor. They had ornaments of bronze 
and silver, however, and seem to have acquired 
pearl, silk, and fine cloth, by trade with the Arabs 
and Bulgarians. The rite of Sutti, which Ibn 
Foslan, who travelled among them in 921, and saw 
the obsequies of a prince, has described, may have 
belonged to them as well as to the Slavs. 

As they were taller than the modern population, 
so were they longer-headed, with an index of 
breadth varying a good deal, from 65 upwards, but 
averaging perhaps 73 or 74, which is less than that 
of any existing Finnish tribe. Their hair was rather 
dark than light brown, if we may trust to the colour 
of such as is found in the graves. 

Further north also the process of Russification 
was always going on. The populations of Novgorod 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 69 

and Pskov, energized by a cross of Swedish blood 
through the Varangians, spread their colonies 
among the Finns of the north as far as Archangel 
and the Petchora. Howorth thinks the Votiaks or 
Vod were pushed by them eastwards to their 
present seats in Viatka, much as the Esths were 
driven westward (the Letts to this day call the 
Esths "Iggauns," "the expelled ones").^ The sug- 
gestion that the Vods were the Budini (Vodini), of 
the Greeks seems inevitable. For the Budini were 
noted for their red hair, and the modern Votiaks 
are among the reddest or most rufous of men ; they 
are commonly said to be all redhaired, but Malijew's 
figures do not bear out this extreme statement. He 
gives the following percentages — red hair, 11; 
flaxen, 7; light brown, 15; brown, 29; dark brown, 
32; black, 2; grey, 4. But no less than 47 had red 
beards. They have rather broad heads (79'8), are 
rather short and thick set (5ft. 4iin.), their eyes are 
oftener blue or grey than brown. On the whole, 
except for the comparative deficiency of black hair 
among them, their colours are not very unlike 
those of the people of Athol and Mar, where red 
hair is more abundant than in any other part of 

The Votiaks are not far behind in civilization. 
They are said to have learned much from the 
Tartars, but not to have mixed blood with them, 
though these same irrepressible invaders penetrated 

' It is said, however, that the Novgorodians found the Votiaks in 
Viatka in the twelfth century. 

70 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

even beyond them, to their kindred tribe, the 
Voguls in the Ural mountains. 

The dreadful energy and persistence of these 
Mongols in their two great invasions of Russia in 
1237 and 1239, is as impressive as their atrocious 
cruelty and destructiveness. Of all the settled 
portions of the country, only Novgorod and the 
north-west escaped, owing to a sudden thaw ren- 
dering the previously frozen ground absolutely 
impracticable. City after city was taken, sacked, 
burned, and its inhabitants massacred; to submit 
was usually death, to attempt resistance was worse. 
Reading the story in the pages of Howorth or 
Karamsin, one compares it with that of Khorassan, 
which was the richest and most civilized province 
of Western Asia before the Mongols entered it, but 
which they left a desolate wilderness, a condition 
from which it has never fully recovered. But one 
may better compare the ravages of the Mongols in 
Russia to those of the Danes in Britain. Though 
the latter were less destructive, they achieved their 
success owing very much to the same causes, the 
greater hardihood of their men, their superiority 
in weapons and generalship, the subjection of the 
victims to an emasculating form of religion, and 
(this was more marked in Russia) the disuse of arms 
by the inferior classes. If the Scotch had lagged 
behind in civilization, such as civilization was at 
the period of our Danish invasions, they were 
perhaps on that very account better able to resist 
a barbarian invader than were the Saxon English. 
To show how great was the fear of the Tartars 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 71 

even in remote countries, we may quote Gibbon, 
cited by Howorth, who says tliat through fear of 
them the fishermen of Sweden and Frisia failed, 
in 1238, to attend the herring fishery on the British 
coast ; and that from this cause herrings were dear. 

It was not only the Slavic inhabitants of Russia 
that were swept with the besom of destruction. 
Bolgari, the old commercial mart of Eastern Russia, 
the metropolis of Old Bulgaria, the region whence 
had issued both the Magyars and the Bulgars of the 
Danube, was utterly destroyed. The people there- 
about had probably been a mixture of the two 
Finnish types already spoken of, of which the one 
is represented by the Esthonians, the other, darker 
and with broader head, by the Tchuds ; but ancient 
skulls have been little sought for there. The rem- 
nants of the earlier Turkish races in the south were 
partly incorporated : others, as the Khomans, fled 
westwards, and were received in Hungary, where 
their descendants still remain, but do not exhibit 
their ancient Turkish breadth of head: the cause 
of the change was probably their long sojourn in 
Little Russia, where the prehistoric population, 
from the time of the Scythians, had been mainly 
long-headed, and may have been incorporated. 

The Mongols were of course but a minority, and 
a rather small minority, in the great Golden Horde, 
the majority of which was composed of the debris 
of various Turkish tribes, more or less mixed with 
those of conquered nations, Persians, Circassians, 
Alans, and so forth. There was at least one 
Englishman in Batu Khan's army. The Mongol 

72 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

and Turkish types are well known, and were 
probably originally identical or nearly so; but the 
Turks, lying to the west of the Mongols, came 
earlier into contact with the Iranian nations, and 
by mixture with them beautified their own type. 
The original one, which may be called Turanian, 
though some anthropologists look on it as an 
infantine form arrested, is free from most of the 
points to which Schaaffhausen objects as primitive 
or savage; it is large and capacious, without large 
frontal sinuses or protuberant occiput or projecting 
jaws. As a rule, no doubt these people are of low 
intellectual power; but some of their early monarchs 
were able men. There are curious legends about 
the origin of Jinghiz Khan's family from a super- 
natural ancestor, who is represented as fair and 
blue-eyed; but whether this is an astronomical 
myth, or whether it points to early admixture of 
the ruling stock with a higher race, I will not 
hazard an opinion. 

The moral qualities of the Mongols are thus 
summed up by a Persian writer, and could not be 
better adapted for savage and irregular warfare. 
"They have," says Vassaf, "the courage of lions, 
the endurance of dogs, the prudence of cranes, the 
cunning of foxes, the farsightedness of ravens, the 
rapacity of wolves, the keenness for fighting of 
cocks, the tenderness for their offspring of hens 
(here is one redeeming feature), the wiliness of cats 
in approaching, and the impetuosity of boars in 
overthrowing their prey." \ 

During the decline of the power of the Golden \ 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 73 

Horde, and after its adherents had been broken up 
into the three Khanates of the Crimea, of the 
Nogays and of Kasan, their incursions continued 
exceedingly destructive. They are even said to 
have carried off, when they sacked Moscow in 1571, 
no less than 800,000 captives — a great exaggeration 
doubtless, but not without some foundation. Great 
numbers of these must have perished on the journey, 
but on the whole the Slav element in the south and 
on the Volga must have been increased in this way ; 
but it is not so clear how it came to pass that the 
Tartar element was largely imported into Great 
Russia or Muscovy, which, however, we shall see, 
was certainly the case. 

Since the capture of Kazan and the reduction of 
the Crimea to a Russian province, only one striking 
anthropographical change has occurred, viz., the 
emigration en masse of the Kalmuks from the 
steppes of the Lower Volga into the Chinese 
empire. By this event, the pure Mongol element 
in Europe was reduced to small dimensions, and 
it is said that those who remain have no tendency 
to increase in numbers. 

The modern population of Russia proper is in 
overwhelming majority Slav, and mostly falls under 
the great divisions of Great, Little, and White 
Russians — the Little Russians occupying the regions 
east and west of the Lower Dnieper, the White 
Russians the Middle Dnieper and Upper Dwina, 
the Great Russians the whole north and east; but 
while the area of the two smaller divisions is 
uninterrupted, that of the larger is broken, especially 

74 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

in the east, by the territories of a number of Finnish 
and Turkish tribes. And the Muscovites them- 
selves must be looked upon as a people who, how- 
ever pure Slavs they may have been at their starting 
points, have in the course of their rapid expansion 
included and assimilated large alien populations 
similar or identical with those which still remain 
recognizable, a people, too, whose purity of type 
must have diminished pari passu with their 
advance, just as the purity of the Saxo-Frisic type 
in Wessex gradually and visibly lessens as one 
travels westward from Hampshire or Berkshire, or 
that of the Anglian type from Berwickshire 
towards Linlithgow. 

The Tartar element in the very purest Great 
Russians is not a negligible quantity. Several of 
the names for money, as altun, kopek, several of 
those for measures of capacity or weight, as arshin, 
kile, aghash, the name of their national drink, kwas, 
the names of some court officials, the use of the 
word " Christian " as a somewhat contemptuous 
term for the lower classes, and many characteristics 
in their habits and manners, are Tartar. All these 
points, it is true, do not prove anything beyond 
intercourse; but Von Hammer gives a list of 
122 Russian families of known Tartar origin. 
"Among these," says Howorth, "are some of the 
best known in Russian history." I may quote 
Glinski, Godunof, Golovin, Dashkof, Narishkin, 
Opraxin, Rostopchin, Turgenef, Uvarof, the last 
the name of the nobleman to whom we owe so 
much in Merian archaeology. To the Merians, by 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 75 

the way, the Russians are thought to owe the so- 
called Russian bath. Bogdanof thinks that the 
Mordwins, one of the brachykephalic Finnish 
tribes, whose remains seem to occur in ancient 
kurgans, may also have contributed to the forma- 
tion of the Muscovite type. The portraits of 
modern Mordwins which he publishes might easily 
be paralleled in this country, and confirm my belief 
in the presence in these islands, and particularly 
in Scotland, of an ancient Finnish element of 

Be these things as they may, there is sufficient 
evidence to the existence of a fairly well-defined 
and permanent Great-Russian type of man. As to 
its stability, Taranetzky says that, having carefully 
examined the ancient Slavish skulls disinterred in 
Novgorod by Von Wolkenstein (which date from 
the tenth or eleventh century), he is unable to find 
the least difference between them and those of the 
present generation, whether in the measurements 
or the general contour and aspect. The hair, too, 
seems to have been of the prevalent modern colour, 
a rather darkish brown. 

Taking as a basis the very careful and laborious 
memoir of Taranetzky, one might say that, in the 
portion of the country which he deals with, the 
Great-Russian type was perhaps purest in the 
governments of Twer, Pskov, and Novgorod, rather 
less so in those of Kostroma and Yaroslav, of 
Olonetz and Vologda and St. Petersburg, and least 
of all in the most remote. Archangel. The stature 
is rather short: calculating from Anuchin's statistics, 

76 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

I should say 1,650 millimeters, or 5 feet 5 inches in 
the adult man. The eyes are small and grey, or 
sometimes dark; the hair varies through different 
shades of brown. The skull is fairly capacious, 
broad (about 81), of good height (about 76), flattened 
at back and often at the top, and on the whole of 
form between an ellipse and an oblong (which I 
take to be what Taranetzky and Bogdanof mean by 
"biscuit-formed"). This is the Sarmatic form of 
Von Holder, and most of the Russians I have seen 
have exhibited it. It accords well with the some- 
what square and massive frame. The frontal 
sinuses are little developed ; the nose is broad and 
often rather flat; the face not so broad in the pure 
type as where the Finnish element is strong, but 
with the same oblong compactness as the skull. 

The Little -Russians (Malorussians), every one 
agrees, are different from the Muscovites in physi- 
cal and moral characteristics. Inhabiting a much 
richer soil, they are conspicuously taller than their 
northern kindred, whose struggle for life is often 
very hard. " Brunette with black eyes and an oily 
skin," says Barchewitz, " fond of greasy feeding and 
of music." Their country has been the camping- 
ground of so many and so diverse nations and races, 
that it would be useless to discuss the derivation of 
their types, which are probably numerous. The 
White Russians border on the Lithuanians and 
Poles, and have probably mixed with both, and 
perhaps the blond element in them has thus been 
strengthened; but they inhabit the very swampy 
country about the Dnieper, the Prypek, and the 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 11 

Beresina, a country where it is said that everything 
— the vegetation, the cattle, the birds — take on a 
colourless or pale hue, and where, accordingly, 
Poesche and his followers conceive that the blond 
type must have originated. 

This speculation, and the closer relation of the 
Lithuanic language to the Sanskrit than that of 
any other European tongue, which seems pretty 
well established, make it extremely desirable, on 
scientific grounds, that both the Lithuanians and 
the White Russians should be visited in their own 
country, and their physical type and archaeology 
investigated by some competent authority. One 
of the most competent men in Europe, Professor 
Virchow, once undertook the task, but unfortun- 
ately he had to stop at the Prussian frontier, and 
his results were not conclusive. Other observers 
have been there, but at present we really know less 
of the Lithuanians, so far as these matters are 
concerned, than of many a small tribe ten thousand 
miles away. 

The Letts, it is true, who are the nearest kindred 
of the Lithuanians, are not quite so unknown. 
They are a mesokephalic people, that is, their 
skulls yield a breadth-index of 78. They are of 
good stature, and of fair complexion, with blue or 
blue-gray eyes, and flaxen or brown hair, soft and 
wavy. The old Prussians, of whom a few skulls, 
belonging, it would seem, to the long Germanic or 
graverow form, have been measured, were another 
branch of this stock; their descendants are still 
long-headed, but apparently less so than the 

78 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

ancients. These people have undoubtedly been 
long in contact with the Finns on the north-east, 
as well as with the Scandio-Germanic people who 
dwelt in Livonia, Esthonia, and Finnland, before 
the westward movement of the Finns. 

I have yet to speak briefly of most of the non- 
Aryan tribes of eastern and south-eastern Russia. 
The Votiaks and Voguls have already been men- 
tioned. Excluding, then, the Russians, the race 
elements are, first, the Ugrians or Finns, who, 
notwithstanding the general resemblance already 
spoken of, vary considerably both as between tribe 
and tribe, and within the limits of the tribe, in 
form of head, and still more in colour of the hair 
and eyes, probably by reason of ancient and partial 
crossing of blood with Asiatics; and second, the 
Turks, in some cases crossed with Mongolic blood. 
The invaders are probably more mixed, on the 
whole, than the invaded, to judge from the cephalic 

Thus the Cheremisses have a stature of 5 feet 
37 inches, and a breadth-index of 76"8, and are, in 
great proportion, blond ; they are the remains of a 
spirited and once formidable people, who still sacri- 
fice in secret in consecrated woods. The Chuvashes, 
more Tartarized in blood and language, are a little 
broader in head ; some think them to be Turks 
Finnized rather than the reverse, but it is more 
probable that they are the remains of the old 

The Mordwins in two divisions, the Mokshas^ 
and the Ertsas, belong to the broad-headed division \ 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 79 

of the Finns, and, on the whole, incline to be dark. 
Their index is variously reckoned, but is well 
beyond 80. 

The Tartars of Kassimov, in Riazan, who are 
Moslems, do not now mix with their neighbours, 
but we may conclude that they once did so, for 
their index of breadth is but 81, and but 15 of 30 
had black hair. The Tartars of Kasan, who dwell 
where once the Bulgarians may have dwelt, and 
who must have mixed largely with captives from 
the surrounding tribes, have an index of only 79'2, 
less than that of the Russians. 

We come now to the Bashkirs, the Metcheriaks, 
and the Teptiars, all undeniable mongrels; they 
are Finnish tribes which have been so infiltrated 
with Turk blood that they are now more Turk 
than Finn, and more Tartar than the Tartars them- 
selves. The Bashkirs are tall, strong, and dark- 
haired, with but few exceptions; they seem to 
exhibit a variety of types, the result probably of 
comparatively recent crossings. Some have the 
round, large, low heads of the Mongols, others the 
round, high head, and large, coarse aquiline nose of 
the high Turkish or Turcoman type ; others, again, 
according to photographs I have seen, exhibit the 
comparatively prominent occiput, cylindrical head, 
and retrousse nose of the Bulgarians. Accordingly, 
some report their breadth-index at 79, more at 81 
or 82, Ujfalvy as high as 84. 

The Metcheriaks were undoubted Finns from 
the Metchera, west of the Volga ; the Turkish cross 

80 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

has improved their physique, and they are very fine 
large men, with the dark complexion and round 
heads of the Turks. 

Further south the Nogays and the remainder of 
the Kalmuks retain their original Central Asiatic 
types ; the latter, as Metchnikof points out, exhibit- 
ing, in their large round heads, short, thick noses, 
large outstanding ears, short chins, and legs short 
in comparison to the trunk, the proportions which 
Ouetelet assigns to the children of the highest or 
so-called Caucasian type of men. To these points 
he adds the peculiarity of the Mongolian eye (which 
frequently occurs as a juvenile condition in Western 
Europe), and the late appearance of the beard. 

But the Tartars of the Southern Crimea are a 
different people. They are settled agricultural folk, 
but there is no good reason for ascribing any change 
in their features to that fact.^ They appear to have 
absorbed the remains of the Greeks of the Cim- 
merian Bosphorus, and, what is to us still more 
interesting, those of the Tetraxite Goths, who are 
known to have existed hereabout as a distinct tribe 
as late as the sixteenth century. Busbequius saw 
one of these people then, who, he says, had the 
appearance of a Fleming. And I have myself seen, 
mixing with men whose eyes and complexion 
betrayed the Mongoloid strain, Tartars whose eyes, 
hair, complexion, and features would have passed 
muster among ourselves. It had for me a kind of 

' The sedentary Bashkirs are said to be more Mongoloid in physique 
than their nomad kindred. 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 81 

pathetic interest to look at these men, to recognise 
their kindly blood, to see in them the descendants 
of the companions of Kniva and of Hermanric, to 
know that the nationality they once belonged to 
had passed away and been forgotten, and that to 
which they now adhered was in progress to the 
like extinction. 

Of the quarternary and even of the neolithic 
populations of the Balkan peninsula, so far as 1 am 
aware, nothing whatever is known. The earliest 
period of which we really seem to know anything 
is that of the Mycenaean civilization, the era of 
bronze and gold and of Cyclopean constructions, 
though in Crete the last two decades have enabled 
us to see farther back into the neolithic age. Evi- 
dently Greece was a meeting-ground of several 
races. The northern portions of the peninsula 
were in the possession of two of these, the Illyrian 
and the Thracian, both reputed Arian, though in 
the case of the former the claim is doubtful: it is 
not so long since the philologists admitted it: and 
I do not think the Albanian language, the modern 
representative of the Illyrian, has even yet been 
thoroughly analysed. Galen speaks of the Thracians 
as a fair race: I do not think much, however, of 
such statements, when used, as he used them, to 
support a theory. It would be convenient to 
believe that the Illyrians were short-headed and 
swarthy, but I know of no evidence from ancient 
sources on these points. Fligier would deduce most 
of the old Greek nomenclature from either Myrian 
or Thracian etymologies, but that there was an 

82 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

early stratum in the country of people who spoke 
a Turanian tongue, as argued for by Hyde Clark, 
I entertain little doubt, and all the less since the 
identification of the Hittite physiognomy has, 
coupled with other lines of argument, proved the 
early presence of Turanians in Asia Minor. 

That the Hellenes proper were a race of the 
type we most of us call the long-headed Aryan, 
there seems no doubt. Nicollucci found an index 
of 75'8 in 26 ancient Greeks. The skulls that have 
come down to us from the classical period are 
generally long, rather narrow and high ; and blond 
coloration was common and admired among the 
Greeks, at all events in the early historical period. 
Both the Achaens and the Dorians were apparently 
waves of migration from some more northern 
region. You will remember that almost all of 
Homer's heroes were xanthous — blond or chestnut 
haired — Minerva was grey-eyed, but Juno " (Sowing " 
ox-eyed — probably with dark as well as large eyes. 
The earlier subject races, Pelasgic or what not, may 
have been dark — Hector was dark-haired. The 
doctrine of the temperaments, taken with the 
physical traits attributed to each of them, indicates 
that there was much variety of colours among the 
Greeks of the classic period. Even the Macedonians 
of Alexander's time, according to Ujfalvy, are por- 
trayed as blond, with long rather low heads — quite 
a northern type. ,3u t later on, in ^he Romao-period.- 
„..tbe-Greeksjn ^gypt are all represented with^ark 
eyes and hair. 

The Hellenic race was very prolific in its palmy 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 83 

days, but like all military and exclusive castes it 
dwindled after a time : the true Spartans, for ex- 
ample, seem to have become almost extinct. Two 
natives of Sparta, whom I once had an opportunity 
of examining, might have belonged to some primi- 
tive Turanian race. They were tall, strongly built, 
swarthy and brachykephalic. It must be remem- 
bered that there are two distinct tribes in the two 
mountain ranges of Laconia, the Tzakpns in the 
eastern one, the Mainotes in the prolongation of 
Taygetus towards Cape Matapan, neither of whom, 
so far as I am aware, have really been studied. The 
Tzakons' dialect is said to have Dorian affinities.^ 
The history of the Peninsula, in relation to 
ethnology, is not very complicated. The Kelts in 
the north disappeared early : some think the nor- 
thern Croats, who are not so tall or so dark as the 
southern Croats, are merely Kelts Slavonized, while 
the southerners are Illyrians. The Thracians lost 
their nationality and language, and accepted the 
Latin; the Illyrians, at least the southern portion 
of them, holding a poorer, more mountainous and 
difficult country, succeeded in retaining their 
tongue, of which the Shkipetar (Albanian), is the 
modern representative. The Latin occupancy pro- 
bably scarcely affected the blood : the Gothic was 
transient; but the Slavonic was extensive and 
permanent, influencing more or less the whole 
country down to Cape Matapan, and changing the 

^ I once caught and measured a Tzakon. His kephalic index was 
82-4, or 80-4, if corrected, for the skull. 

84 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

language of more than half of it. In the people of 
Servia and Bosnia, I think the Slav element really 
preponderates; they are taller and finer men than 
the Russians, but have the same make of body and 
often of countenance ; and a great many of them 
have light brown hair and answer to Procopius's 
often-quoted description of their forefathers. In 
the Bulgarians, the Finnish or Ugrian element is 
strong, and there is much Turkish blood, some 
perhaps brought in with the Ugrian, some, especi- 
ally in Eastern Bulgaria, by the Ottomans: the 
Slavs succeeded in giving the language, perhaps 
more owing to the prestige of religion therewith 
connected, than to their actual superiority in 
number; but the "dour," sturdy national character 
is rather Finn than Slav. As to the skull-form, 
Kopernitsky says it is neither one nor other; but 
he had probably in his mind the Finns of Tavastian 
Finnland. The form is long, rather narrow, cylin- 
drical, with very regular curves and absence of 
frontal or parietal bosses. The forehead is remark- 
ably recedent, and the face prognathous, the cheek- 
bones not particularly wide. This must surely be 
the true Bulgar type, for it is neither Slavish nor 
Turkish, nor have we any reason to think it old 
Thracian. To my eye it resembles that of the 
Cheremisses. Both Slavish and Turkish types do, 
however, occur, mixed with the one described ; in 
what proportions we do not yet know, but Pittard 
has proved their importance. The kephalic index 
seems to increase as one proceeds westward to 
Widdin and the Servian frontier. 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 85 

The Thracians, once thought most populous of 
nations, cannot of course be extinct. Their debris 
are to be found among the Roumans or Vlachs. 
Whether the Transdanubian Roumans, who appear 
to be on the way to become a considerable nation, 
have a Thracian nucleus or substratum, or a Dacian 
one; whether, that is, they are descendants of 
Trajan's colonists and Romanized Dacians, who 
remained in the Transsylvanian mountains when 
Aurelian recalled their fellows across the Danube, 
or whether, as Fligier and others think, they were 
Romanized Thracians, who in some time of dis- 
turbance, long after Aurelian's day, migrated north- 
wards across the Danube into some vacant tract in 
Transsylvania, or perhaps were transported thither 
by the Avars — matters little ethnologically ; the 
Dacians and the Thracians were near kindred. 
They are probably a good deal mixed in blood, 
especially with their Slavonic neighbours; their 
complexion is usually dark, though there are a 
good many blond Roumans in the Bukowina ; 
their heads are broad (828, Weisbach) and of good 
height, and rounded ; their faces broad, but well 
featured, with nothing of the prognathism of the 

But there are other Roumans in the far south, 
perhaps of greater interest, though comparatively 
few in number. They are called Roumans, Vlachs, 
Zinzars; they are mostly shepherds and herdsmen, 
who wander along and across the ridges and 
elevated mountain valleys of Pindus, and towards 
Parnassus and CEta. Remote and secluded, they 

86 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

have been little studied ; but they must be the 
descendants of the old Roman provincials, perhaps 
of Macedonian or Thracian blood. They are des- 
cribed as having sharply-drawn features and long, 
shaggy fair hair, but that may be true of but one 
particular tribe. Their names crop up nowadays 
in the troubled politics of Macedonia. 

And in the recesses of Mount Rhodope, between 
the Hebrus, the Strymon and the sea, among the 
Pomaks or nominally Moslem Bulgarians, has been 
preserved an oral literature of great interest, in the 
ballad form, and containing sundry words which 
appear to be Aryan but not Slavonic, and may very 
well be Thracian. These ballads have for subjects, 
Alexander the Great, and Philip, and contain allu- 
sions to Orpheus, and to other personages who may 
be referred to Greek mythology. A controversy 
like that about Ossian arose about these poems; 
but I believe their genuineness is now allowed. 
We must suppose therefore that we have in the 
Rhodope the remains of Thracians who were still 
un-Romanized in speech when the Slavs and 
Bulgarians overran the land. It may be noted 
that the heroes in these poems are always de- 
scribed as fair-haired, but Fligier says this epithet 
could not be applied to the present generation in 

Here are fine opportunities for any enterprizing 
Englishman with money and a taste for travel and 
adventure, and with sufficient brains to be able to 
pick up a language. But alas! such men usually 
seem to care for nothing but " killing something." 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 87 

Men of the type of Campbell of Islay are wanted ; 
but alas! men so gifted and so disposed are few. 

The Albanians, the modern representatives of 
the Illyrians, are men of good stature, with long 
faces and prominent, often pointed noses; their 
heads are remarkably short and broad, with the 
greatest breadth placed far back. The first skull 
ever obtained for measurement yielded to Virchow 
an index of 91'5, and a small series of three from 
Scutari gave to Zampa one of 89*5 — extraordinary 
figures. Their colour varies in tribes and in indivi- 
duals, but I think the most characteristic specimens 
have mostly lank black hair, lighter colours being 
due to Slavic or Greek admixture.^ The people to 
the north of them, the Morlachs, or Black Wallachs, 
in Dalmatia and Montenegro, and the Herzegovina, 
are of an Illyro-Slavic cross; they are a tall, dark 
race. " The wife of Hasan Aga " must have been a 
brunette, when — 

" Wide through Bosnia and the Herzegovina 
Spread the tidings of her matchless beauty." 

These people have been examined by the indefatig- 
able Weisbach. They have an average stature of 
about 1,690 millimeters, and in a mountainous dis- 
trict 1,720, or nearly 5 ft. 8 in., the highest average 

^This was my impression, and I am inclined to adhere to it; but 
Miss Durham, who has dwelt among the northern tribes, says that she 
found there tall, fair, and small, dark ugly men, that the former were 
said to have immigrated from the north and east, but claimed to be the 
true Albanians or Shkipetar. I suspect they were really more or less 
Slavonic, and adopted the Shkipetar language from the lUyrian 

88 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

ascertained in Southern Europe; and the highest 
stature is found in the south, i.e., the most Illyrian 
and least Croat region, and goes with the blackest 
hair. The index of breadth is 84, which is extremely 
high. On the whole, lUyria seems to have been a 
focus for broad heads and dark colours. Deniker 
makes of these people a distinct race. 

Among modern Greeks there are considerable 
physical differences no doubt. Some portions of 
their country have been colonised en masse by 
Slavonians; others, as Attica, by Albanians. Even 
the so-called national dress of the Greeks is the 
Albanian kilt or fustanella. Still the old type is far 
from being extinct, either in Europe or in Asia; 
the ideal of the sculptors was perhaps always rare, 
but I have seen it, living and breathing, and kissing 
my hands, in Asia Minor. 

Nicolucci found modern Greek skulls smaller in 
capacity than the ancient, and decidedly shorter; 
still, the index was under 80 (79'2), the height was 
good (75).^ Weisbach found a breadth -index of 
77'4 in Greeks of Constantinople; 78'3 for the 
Peloponnese ; 807 in a large series from Bithynia ; 
and 83'8 in another from Selymbria in Roumelia. 
The last result is curious ; one must remember that 
Greek means Greek by religion and language, or 
not always even that. The divisions of peoples in 
the Levant are very sharply accentuated ; inter- 
marriage, for example, between Turk and Greek, 
or Armenian and Greek, hardly ever occurs, but 

^ I found an index of 80 in ten iEgean islanders. 

Russia and the Balkan Peninsula. 89 

one must not treat these divisions as necessarily 
ethnological. These so-called Greeks of Selymbria 
belong to the Greek community ; that is all that 
can be positively asserted. As to their race, all that 
one can be pretty sure of is that there is very little 
Greek blood in them. 



Oldest Scandinavian Skull-forms — The Borreby and Svelrik skulls 
— The Rhoxalani — Modern Norwegians and Danes — The Ice- 
landers — Ancient German Graverow type — The four Swiss 
types of His and Rutimeyer — Von Holder's discoveries at 
Ratisbon — Ranke on the Bavarians^— Bohemia — Hallstadt — 
Hungary, Poland, Holland — Colour and stature in Central 
Europe — France, constitution of the Keltic nation there — 
Results of the Volkswanderung — Clear demarcation of types in 
Belgium, less clear in France — Investigations of Topinard and 

THE three Scandinavian countries may be taken 
together as constituting a single province with 
respect to race as well as to language. Denmark 
probably became peopled a little earlier than 
Sweden, and perhaps Southern Sweden earlier than 
Norway ; but we have remains of the men of the 
stone period from all of them, though very few 
from Norway. Those who think, as most do, that 
the Lapps, or a people akin to them, were the 
earliest inhabitants of Norway and Sweden, point 
to the fact that the modern Lapps exercise great 
secretiveness with regard to the burial of their dead, 
as a reason why the resting-places of their supposed 
ancestors are very rarely discovered. 

Scandittavia, Central Europe, France. 91 

The Swedish skulls of the stone age are elon- 
gated, and resemble the Graverow type of Germany, 
but among them are said to be about 10 per cent, of 
short round skulls, generally thought to resemble 
those of Lapps, and to indicate admixture of races. 
In Denmark I am not aware that the kitchen- 
middens have ever yielded a perfect skull; but 
there are many in the Museum at Copenhagen 
from cists and stone-galleries. They vary in 
length ; some of them attain to brachykephaly, but 
they are mostly characterised by ruggedness of 
form, and particularly by the great development 
of the superciliary or brow-ridges. In this and in 
outline as viewed sidewise they much resemble 
those of the bronze race in Britain, but are not 
generally so wide : they also resemble the Sion type 
of Switzerland, which seems to have been that of 
the Gallic Helvetii. Some fine examples came from 
Borreby, and the type is usually known by that 

Unfortunately, the Danish archaeologists seem to 
have been singularly unsuccessful in finding or 
procuring skulls of the bronze or early iron periods. 
Those they have are extraordinarily long and 
narrow, but they are too few to generalize upon. 
Virchow has remarked that the old stone-type 
seems to have continued to exist in Denmark, and 
is pretty common nowadays : this is pretty much 
what one finds in most countries; either the influ- 
ence of local agencies continues to work in the 
same direction on the skull-form, or else the original 
race, the autochthonic if any race is so, having had 

92 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

time to assimilate itself to the conditions, and to 
acquire potency in breeding true, and being perhaps 
favoured by social conditions which I have before 
spoken of, outlasts its conquerors or other new- 
comers, and once more acquires predominance. 

The only skull found in Norway which is with 
absolute certainty referred to the stone period, that 
of Svelrik, is precisely of the form just now in 
question, but its breadth index is only 76*4 ; height, 
74*41. Skulls of this type still occur among the 
modern Norwegians, but not very commonly. 
They are not like those of modern Lapps: as 
Dr. Arbo says, we don't know what sorts of heads 
the Lapps of those days had; but plenty of skulls 
much more like those of Lapps have been found in 
Germany, Belgium, and France; for example, some 
of those Dupont found at Furfooz near Dinant; 
apparently also the ancient round skulls of Sweden 
are of this class. 

Montelius, one of the best known of several able 
Swedish archaeologists, is of opinion that there is 
no evidence to shew any change of race in that 
country since the stone period: he thinks, that is, 
that the ancient long-headed race that first entered 
the country after the small round-headed Lapps 
or Finns, has always remained there undisturbed. 
Aspelin, on the other hand, thinks that the Rox- 
alani, those mighty men in scale-armour who came 
into contact with the Romans on the Danube, were 
the ancestors of the true Swedes as distinguished 
from the Goths; that they dwelt somewhere east of 
the Baltic, and crossed over in order to escape from 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 93 

the Huns. This theory would suit well with the 
old beliefs about Asgard and Woden ; and I believe 
the Finns call the Swedes Ruotsi — Ruotsi-alainen— 
Red-men. But the names of Roxalanian kings, 
known to the Romans, have not a very Gothic 
sound: they are Tascius an^ Rhescuporius.^ 

Since the above was written, very much has been 
accomplished in the matter of Swedish anthro- 
pology, chiefly by Gustaf Retzius and by Professor 
Fiirst of Lund. We are now able to say with con- 
fidence that there was a great general resemblance 
in skull form between the people of the stone, 
the bronze, and the iron ages. The typical form 
through all these periods was very long, rather 
narrow, and of height slightly less than the breadth. 
Brachykephals were apparently rare throughout, 
but the limits of variation of the cranial index seem 
to have been greatest in the stone age (667 to 85'5), 
and least in the iron age (69 to 80'6). The easiest 
way of accounting for this is to suppose that the 
earliest inhabitants were of two stocks, the more 
numerous one, dolichokephalic, coming in from the 
south, and acquiring, may be, in the lapse of ages, 
through exposure to the influences of a boreal 
climate, the blond complexion and lofty stature; 
the other, brachykephalic, perhaps of Lappish kin- 
dred, from the east, and that in course of time the 
relics of the latter have become thoroughly amal- 

Any ethnological changes in Scandinavia during 

' But Tassilo was a Duke of Bavaria some centuries later. 

94 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

the historic period, which here does not reach 
very far back, must have been small. Ugrians 
from Bjarmaland, fleeing from the Mongols, as 
already mentioned, have settled in the north : and 
other Finns, the Quaens, have followed them : the 
Swedes have gradually colonised their own terri- 
tory, and the Norwegians the higher and inner 
dales ; the Danes have receded a little in the south, 
while Frisians, Low Germans, even Wends, have 
advanced : but the important movements have been 
those of emigration ; from Sweden to Russia, from 
Denmark and Norway to Iceland, Scotland, England, 
Ireland, Normandy, and elsewhere, aye, even to 

Likely enough the physical types may have 
changed a little, with the departure of the most 
energetic and adventurous part of the population, 
including probably an undue proportion of the 
chieftain caste. There is an old document some- 
where, quoted by Mallet or Dasent, which describes 
the nobles as fair-haired, the churls red-haired, the 
thralls black-haired, and which, as well as many of 
the stories about trolls, seems to point to the expul- 
sion or subjugation of a primitive dark race. 

As to present conditions, we know a great deal 
about the Norwegians, thanks to Dr. Arbo and 
Sergeant Westly. Dr. Arbo's maps of stature, of 
hair-colour and of head-breadth, have a very con- 
fused, jumbled look, due, as he explains, to the fact 
that the country is divided so trenchantly, by 
mountains and forests, into districts which have 
little communication with each other. The average 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 95 

stature at twenty-two years seems to be 1680 to 1700 
millimeters, or scarcely 5 feet 7 inches, less than 
I should have expected : in some districts it rises 
to 1730 (5 feet 8 inches). The skull is dolichous 
(index after correction 74-75), in a number of dis- 
tricts chiefly in the interior. Dr. Arbo says that 
the prevalence of long heads concurs generally with 
that of a high stature, and very blond hair, a more 
advanced social condition, and sometimes aristo- 
cratic, but certainly conservative, tendencies. He 
^Iso says that prognathism goes oftener with broader 
heads. Brachykephals (78'5 to 81), occupy especially 
the coasts and the south-west. Near the head of 
the Sognefiord, also, some dales are inhabited by a 
population with rather broad heads (78*5) and dark 
complexions, with great physical and intellectual 
activity. It is difficult, however, to make out 
much about colour : on the whole the hair seems 
to be lighter in the south and west than in the 
north and south-west. 

It is lighter in the south-west in Sweden, where 
West Gothland and Scania are said to produce the 
fairest people. In Dalecarlia, where Quatrefages 
and Hamy think they find the Cromagnon type, 
the hair, I understand, is often dark. I found the 
breadth-index of a number of Swedes 792, or after 
correction for life and the integuments, 77'2, which 
I believe is about where it is put by some dis- 
tinguished savans. 

Within the last few years, G. Retzius and Furst 
have cleared up this part also of the subject, as 
regards Sweden. Their researches, carried out on 

96 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

conscripts, have distinctly settled several important 
points respecting the modern Swedes. In stature 
they equal or surpass any European nation: their 
conscripts averaging 1709 millimeters (67*28 inches), 
while the provinces vary between 172,7 millimeters 
(68 inches) in the Isle of Gottland, and 1691 milli- 
meters (6657 inches) in Lappland, where, I appre- 
hend, the pure Lapps pull down the average. Of 
course, many of these young soldiers have not 
attained their full growth. Speaking generally, 
the central provinces produce taller men than 
either the northern or the extreme southern ones. 
They have also a lower kephalic index and a larger 
proportion of true dolichokephals (long-heads). 
Finally the centre, south, and west, have the greatest 
preponderance of fair hair: the variation in the pro- 
portion of light and dark eyes is less conspicuous. 
Some anomalies which are discovered on minute 
study are easily explicable by the history : thus the 
heads are a little broader in Uppland and Scania 
than one would have expected ; but Walloon and 
other alien miners worked the mines of Uppland, 
and Scania was long a province of Denmark. West 
Gothland is apparently, though but slightly, the 
most blond of all; but East Gothland is different 
in that respect, and I see no facts sufficient to 
indicate that there was any original difference 
between the true Swedes and the Goths. Both 
these, and the possible Roxalanians too, pretty 
surely belonged to the same tall dolichoblond type. 
Generally speaking, the coastmen have slightly 
broader heads than the men of the interior. For all 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 97 

Sweden the index, got by reducing that measured 
by 2 degrees is only 75'8; but I myself got one of 
77'2 from thirty Swedish sailors. This is doubtless 
due to modern mixture of blood. 

The Danes are rather lower in stature than is 
generally supposed, and scarcely so tall as the 
Frisians and Saxons of Sleswick, to the south of 
them. The average adult stature seems to be 
169'4 millimeters (Soren-Hansen) or 667 inches, and 
the kephalic index 80'5, which, it interests me some- 
what to know, is the exact figure at which I myself 
arrived forty years ago, from observations on a few 
(twenty-eight) Danish seamen. Steensby finds the 
most prevalent type of skull and figure to be much ^ 
the same as that which the late Park Harrison and ) ^^;^.^^ 
D. Macintosh found in Kent and Wight, and labelled y 
Jutish. Steensby correlates it with the ancient 
Borreby type of Denmark and the Sion one of 
Switzerland, and hazards a conjecture that it was 
developed in the course of ages from the primeval 
Neanderthaloid. The race history of Denmark is 
that of a slow westerly drifting from Denmark to 
England and the Cotentin, the gaps left being filled 
up ultimately from the east, i.e., from Sweden or 
even by Wends, or Saxons from the south. 

In Thy, one of the districts where the stature is 
highest, it is but 1670 millimeters on the average, 
equal to something less than 5 ft. 6 in. As the sub- 
jects are conscripts, probably one may allow an inch 
for subsequent growth. In Wendsyssel and part of 
Zealand it is 165'9, or 5 ft. 5* in. There are also 
local differences in colour; evidently, as in some 

98 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

other countries, including our own, many more 
women than men have dark eyes. On the whole, 
blue or grey eyes and rather light brown hair pre- 
vail. As to the form of the head, I have no figures 
but my own, gathered from only twenty-eight sub- 
jects; I make the index, corrected, to be 785, but 
this may probably be in excess. 

In stature* the Swedes probably equal any Euro- 
pean nation ; but except the American statistics of 
Dr. Baxter, in which are included a large number 
of Swedish soldiers, I do not think there are any 
published measurements on a large scale. Baxter's 
average was 5 feet 69 inches; Gould's, on a smaller 
basis, was higher. 

It will be seen that the phenomena in Scandinavia 
are consistent with the original occupation of these 
countries by a dark race or races, with skulls tend- 
ing, at least, to be broad, and with the subsequent 
arrival from the south of a fairer race with long 
heads, whose type assumed preponderance. The 
blondness of the southern invaders might become 
accentuated in and by the Scandinavian climate. 
There seems little reason to suppose there has been 
any subsequent increase of breadth except to the 
small extent which incorporation of primitive strata 
of population would imply. As for the Swedes, 
there is a good deal of indistinct evidence to connect 
them with the Lithuanian stock, whose index is not 
very much higher. 

The Icelanders must not pass unmentioned. The 
ancient colonists of this everyway remarkable island 
included a large proportion of the noble caste. It 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 99 

has been suggested, also, that the captives they 
brought from Ireland, and occasional intermarriages 
with the Irish and Scottish Gaels, gave them the ray 
of poetic imagination which sometimes brightens 
their wonderful but sanguinary Sagas. We know 
from these Sagas what manner of men they were in 
personal appearance. They had the same varieties 
of complexion and hair-colour that we have, and in 
some cases Irish features came out with Irish blood ; 
thus Kjartan had dark hair, and Skarphedin, the son 
of Njal, was the most soldierly and active of men, 
but he had an ugly mouth, and his teeth stuck out. 

The modern Icelanders are big, fair men; the 
only skull I can find mentioned is one at Gottingen, 
with indices of 723 and 72'9. Some measurements 
made for me by Dr. Hjaltelin come out a little 
broader. In Germany and Central Europe, as else- 
where, the very oldest skulls seem to be dolichoke- 
phalic; in this case they are of the Canstatt type, 
and one of them is the famous Neanderthaler. 
Several broad skulls also have been found, which 
have very respectable pretensions to primitive 

The crania of the neolithic period throughout 
the whole region under consideration, are in great 
majority also dolichokephalic. Perhaps I should 
make a partial and doubtful exception with regard 
to the pile-dwellers on the Swiss lakes. But gener- 
ally speaking, from the North Sea and the Baltic to 
the Danube and the Alps, and eastward through 
Bohemia to the Vistula and the Niemen, the pre- 
vailing form was long. In many of the Hugel- 

100 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

graber, the dolmens and tumuli, a form occurs with 
greater breadth and roundness, but still averaging 
under 80. 

We have no history for Germany until well into 
the iron age, nor anything but probabilities based 
on philological arguments. I am disposed to look 
on the tenants of the Hiigelgraber as Gallic, but 
this is but my own private conjecture. From 
Tacitus's account, the Poles (Lygii, Lekhs) were 
already in Poland in his time, but the modern Poles 
have broad square heads (82'4). 

The Germans had already begun to overpass the 
Rhine and the Danube when the arrival of the 
Romans checked their expansion, and determined a 
flux of Kelts, Rhaetians, Pannonians and others, 
mostly of the broadheaded division of Europeans, 
to the frontier, whose descendants are still extant. 

Meanwhile the mass of tall, blond, vigorous 
barbarians multiplied, seethed and fretted behind 
the barrier thus imposed. Tacitus and several 
other classic authors speak of the remarkable uni- 
formity in their appearance ; how they were all tall 
and handsome, with fierce blue eyes and yellow 
hair. Humboldt remarks the tendency we all have, 
to see only the single type in a strange foreign 
people, and to shut our eyes to the differences 
among them. Thus some of us think sheep all 
alike; but the shepherd knows better; and many 
think all Chinamen are alike, whereas they differ, 
in reality, quite as much as we do, or rather more. 
But with respect to the ancient Germans, there 
certainly was among them one very prevalent form 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 101 

of head, and even the varieties of feature which 
occur among the Marcomans, for example, on 
Marcus Aurelius's column, all seem to oscillate 
round one central type. 

This is the Graverow type of Ecker, the Hohberg 
type of His and Rutimeyer, the Swiss anatomists. 
In it the head is long, narrow (say from 70 to 76 in 
breadth-index), as high or higher than it is broad, 
with the upper part of the occiput very prominent, 
the forehead rather high than broad, often dome- 
shaped, often receding, with prominent brows, the 
nose long, narrow and prominent, the cheekbones 
narrow and not prominent, the chin well marked, 
the mouth apt to be prominent in women. In 
Germany persons with these characters have almost 
always light eyes and hair. Now comes a problem, 
one of several in German anthropology. This 
Graverow type is almost exclusively what is found 
in the burying-places of the fifth, sixth, and seventh 
centuries, whether of the Alemanni, the Bavarians, 
the Franks, the Saxons, or the Burgundians. 
Schetelig dug out a graveyard in southern Spain, 
which is attributed to the Visigoths. Still the same 
harmonious elliptic form, the same indices, breadth 
73, height 74. 

But Ecker, proceeding from the examination of 
the ancient Alemanni to that of the modern 
Swabians, was surprised to find that from among 
them the Graverow type had almost disappeared, 
and that a short broad squarish form, with flattened 
occiput, had taken its place. Then Von Holder 
investigated the Wirtembergers. They are mostly 

102 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Swabians, too ; but probably the Alemanni occu- 
pied this country before they spread into Baden 
and the Brisgau ; and so there are more blonds in 

Accordingly, Von Holder found a small number 
of the true Germanic or Graverow heads, but also 
a few of the oblong form just mentioned, which 
he calls Rhceto - Sarmatian, and once in a way a 
globular form, his true Turanian, while the majority 
is made up of various crosses between the three. 
Von Holder wrote to me years ago, saying that he 
much wished to come to England in order to see 
the true Germans, who are really stronger here 
than in Swabia, though in Franconia, a little further 
north, they are numerous. The average index of 
modern Wirtemburgers is about 81'6. Von Holder 
found the long Germanic forms more prevalent 
among noblemen and burghers than among artizans 
and labourers. He thought the Sarmatic forms had 
been strengthened, and the Turanian ones intro- 
duced, by the settlement on the land of Slavonic, 
Hunnish, Avar, and Magyar captives, taken in war 
by the Germans. 

It is difficult to dismiss Switzerland briefly. Its 
proto-historic inhabitants were Rhaetian in the east, 
Keltic-Helvetian in the west and north. What the 
pile-dwellers had been is a subject by itself, which, 
for the present, I will leave to Dr. Monro. 

His and Rutimeyer found four ancient types: 

1. The Hohberg, which is Germanic, though 
they thought it Roman. 

2. The Belair, which is Burgundian-German. 
















































' — 





. L. 

























^ .^ 



CO -a 

'-= cu 

en r= 

c: : — 



Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 103 

3. The Sion — large, longish but rounded, frown- 
ing, aquiline — very like the modern Walloon. 

4. The Disentis. Very short and broad, cuboid 
but for the narrowness of the forehead. Rhaetian, 
Rhaeto - Sarmatic of Von Holder, Keltic form of 

The Alemanni conquered and Germanized as 
to language the centre and north-east, but the 
Rhaetians in the south-east were little touched. 
The Burgundians conquered the west, but did not 
change the language there, which is now French. 
The Disentis type of head is nowadays in great 
majority. The greater stature in the west of 
Switzerland may be credited to the Helvetii and 
to the seven-foot Burgundians, as Sidonius Apolli- 
naris called them : in the east it has probably been 
reduced by the continued emigration of the taller 
men, who would be largely of Alemannic type. 
The skull-breadth which I found in two places was 
83'6 : in parts of the Grisons it is probably greater. 

In Bavaria the proto- historic population may 
have been Keltic or Rhaetian even north-east of the 
Danube, in the Upper Palatinate; recent discoveries 
at Hohenbuchel and elsewhere seem to indicate a 
non-Germanic population, with broadish heads and 
broad flat noses ; but at least as early as the Roman 
occupation the pure Germans (Marcoman or Her- 
mundurian, probably), began to come in. Franconia 
was probably Germanic from the first. Subse- 
quently the Slavs from the Bohemian side settled 
largely in Upper and Middle Franconia. 

104 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Von Holder's work done at Regensburg (Ratis- 
bon) is most pregnant and suggestive. From 
the Roman cemeteries he obtained nine skulls 
dating from the second century, with a breadth 
index of - - - - - 79'4 

From about a.d. 200, 8 skulls, - 771 

From the third century, 13 skulls, - 77*4 
From about a.d. 300, 10 skulls, - 757 

From the fourth century, 22 skulls, - 751 
And 50 skulls from an old Bavarian 
burying-ground of the sixth or 
seventh centuries, the Mero- 
vingian period, - - - 73'8 
I do not enter into particulars as to the other 
racemarks in these crania ; in this instance at least 
they vary pari passu with the breadth-index. We 
have clearly a population of mixed Roman subjects, 
gradually being infiltrated by Germans, until, after 
the Roman dominion has come to an end, the Mar- 
comanni, now called Bavarians, come in en masse. 

Now look at the modern population. 193 skulls 
from the crypt of St. Michael's Church, mostly of 
the eighteenth, some of the seventeenth perhaps, 
gave an index of 8316. The forms which Von 
Holder calls Turanian, and which according to him 
scarcely appear at all in the earlier periods, consti- 
tute a very important element. 

Now let us turn to Ranke, whose monograph on 
his countrymen, the Bavarians, is very important. 
He also finds for the modern Bavarians an index of 
S3. Large as this is, it is exceeded on the one hand 
among the people of Michelfeld in upper Franconia', 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 105 

who are of Slav descent and dwell in a hilly dis- 
trict; and again in the Bavarian highlands and in 
the Tyrol generally, except in some valleys known 
to have been colonised by the Alemanni, among 
which, it is curious to note, is the Protestant Ziller- 
thal. There are places in the Tyrol where it rises 
to 85, or even higher, according to Frizzi. 

Ranke finds but one leading type in Bavaria 
proper, which he describes minutely, and which may 
be familiar to many who have never been in Bavaria 
or Tyrol, through the paintings of Defregger. It is 
the cuboid form. Von Holder's Rhaeto-Sarmatic, 
KoUmann's broad-headed long-faced type. But in 
Franconia, outside the old Roman boundary wall at 
Ebrach, whereas the average head-breadth sinks to 
78*9, he finds nearly half the heads display a true 
Germanic type, though not exactly the Hohberg 
one ; and the curve of breadth gives one maximum 
at 73 and another at 83.^ 

What seems strangest is, that if we draw out a 
similar numerical curve corresponding to the indices 
of a large number of Bavarians, we do not find 
evidence of two unconformable, or at least as yet 
unconformed races. On the contrary, the curve is 
fairly regular. Ranke, who is a believer in external 
agencies and in transformation, and thinks that life 
among mountains in some unexplained way tends 
to shorten and widen the head, says that in the 
modern Bavarians a German face has been married 
to a brachykephalic braincase. He does not, I think, 

' See illustrative diagram. 

106 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

anywhere commit himself to the statement that 
this broad head represents another race; but most 
men would have no doubt about that. Anyhow, 
the mixture must be wonderfully complete, quite 
otherwise than in Wirtemberg, for Ranke finds that 
the average head-breadth in blonds and brunettes is 
precisely identical. 

In Bohemia all the ancient skulls are long and 
narrow, some to an extraordinary degree ; and this 
is the case in the neolithic and bronze ages also. 
There is something in the general contour of all 
those which Weisbach figures, which, though the 
measurements come out very much like those of 
Graverow Germans, makes me think them Galatic : 
they are less elliptic, more lozenge or coffin-shaped, 
the brows less arched and prominent. Moreover, 
Galatic they ought, I think, to be: the Boii, who 
were either Galatic or Keltic, or a mixture of the 
two, occupied Bohemia in those days. After them 
the Marcomanni, the ancestors of the Bavarians on 
the spear side, had a transitory occupation. The 
modern inhabitants, Czechs, i.e., Slavs, have large, 
broad, cuboid skulls, with an average index of 
83'6. I recollect asking Professor Rokitansky 
whether the Czechs were not brachykephalic. 
Rokitansky was himself a Bohemian, and he was 
evidently nettled by a question which he thought 
touched upon a weak point in his fellow-country- 
men. " Ah ! well ! " he said, " they are a very 
clever people for all that." 

In Austria proper, and the German territories 
south of it, few very ancient crania have been found. 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 107 

Those of the famous early-iron age station of Hall- 
stadt, in lower Austria, have yielded, on an average 
of 7, an index of 73. They are probably Galatic; 
but the archaeological history of the Hallstadt dis- 
coveries is still much debated. These long crania 
may have been those of the ruling caste only. 

Austria has been, ethnologically, a sandbank 
washed to and fro, east and west, by the tides ; and 
these have been latterly tides of Bavarians on the 
one hand, and Avars and Magyars on the other, with 
a kind of by-wash of Slavs from north and south. 
The modern population is nominally German ; but 
is apparently as mixed as might have been expected. 
Zuckerkandl found in different ossuaries the follow- 
ing respective breadth indices: — 84'7, 82'4, 81"7, 
78'4. And Weisbach, who probably dealt with the 
Viennese, who are certainly more Germanized than 
the peasantry, puts the index at 811. 

The highest index here, 847, is that of the 
mediaeval and modern people of Hallstadt. And 
Zuckerkandl asserts confidently, after an exhaustive 
examination, that the cranial type of the inhabitants 
of Hallstadt has not varied since the twelfth century. 
This looks something like a crucial instance. The 
Hallstadtians must surely have advanced somewhat 
in civilization and intellectual development since 
the twelfth century; yet their heads are none the 
broader for it; on the other hand, it would be 
difficult to say they were much further advanced 
in the twelfth century, an age of barbarism, than 
when they produced in prehistoric times, those 
beautiful and elaborate works in bronze and iron 

108 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

which we call Hallstadtian ; yet their skulls grew 
wider in the interim by more than 11 per cent. 
Surely there was here a substitution of one race for 
another, not a mere development. And we may 
recollect that the very fountain of brachykephalism 
lies not far to the south, in Illyria. 

Hungary is another seething place of races and 
nations, but from the character of its physical 
geography has always attracted equestrian and 
pastoral hordes. The most curious find of ancient 
skulls there has been that by Dr. Lipp, at Keszthely 
on the Plattensee. The conjectural period is the 
latter part of the fourth century. He found the 
long skulls of a tall stalwart people, evidently 
Germanic (Quadans or Vandals.'') and those of 
another race, short-statured and robust, with curved 
legs and many signs of badly united fractures; their 
heads were long, foreheads low and narrow, occiputs 
broad, and cheekbones prominent. These Fligier 
takes to have belonged to the equestrian Sarmatians 
(the Jazyges), and to show a mixture of Iranian 
with Ugrian or Ural-Altaic blood. 

The modern Hungarians are a handsome people, 
of short stature, with round heads, broad cheek- 
bones, and generally dark hair and eyes, and, I 
should say, with more of the Turkish than of the 
Finnish aspect.^ But the Szeklers of the Trans- 
sylvanian mountains, a remarkably intelligent 
people, mostly, I believe. Unitarians, and claiming 

^ Ibn Fozlan says, " Chazari Turcis (by which he means the Ugri) 
similes non sunt : nigrum capillura habent." 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 109 

to be the purest Hungarians, have more of the 
Finnish facies. The country of Jaszag by its name 
recalls the Sarmatian Jazyges just now mentioned, 
some remains of whom may perhaps still be con- 
stituents of its population. 

Returning to the north of Germany, it may be 
repeated that as a general rule the skulls of pre- 
historic or early date are long, whether they are 
supposed, from archaeological evidence, to be Ger- 
manic, Slavic, or Lithuanic. The evidence is not 
so cogent, or rather so abundant, in the case of the 
Slavs, as they frequently resorted to cremation. 
Great internal migrations have taken place in the 
historical period within the limits of North Ger- 
many, but no great immigration of any race not 
previously represented. Yet evidence seems to 
point to a change in the physical type. 

The modern Poles, at least in the south, are a 
fair race on the whole, but of short stature, with 
broad heads (82*4).' All through Prussia the mixed 
Slavo-German race is said to incline to brachy- 
kephaly, though perhaps less so towards the coast. 
West of the Elbe, in Westphalia, for example, there 
seems to have been little change; but the Wends or 
Slavs in Luneburg run up to 82, as Slavs ought to 
do, though they be but a little isolated handful. 
The dwellers in the flat alluvial lands of Holland 
have as a rule rather broad, flat heads, elliptic in the 
vertical aspect, cylindrical from behind, often some- 
what prognathous. In Zealand (South Beveland), 

* Majer and Kopernitsky. 

110 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

the average of certain skulls disinterred from a 
drowned village, victims to the inundation of 1530, 
actually rises to 85, according to Sasse; and De Man 
of Middelburg finds something like it among the 
living; he thinks these brachykephals, though 
ancient, were not the earliest settlers in those parts. 

Much discussion has arisen about these and such 
like facts. Virchow maintains the existence of a 
separate Frisian type, broader and flatter than the 
ordinary German descended from the Graverow 
men. Von Holder disputes this. I can only say 
now what I have said already, that the conditions 
of soil, water, etc., in the islands and marshlands of 
Holland and Friesland might well be believed to 
influence the physical development. The Beveland 
folk, however, may not improbably be the remains 
of an ancient tribe of brachykephals, driven into 
the islands by the Batavi, or by still earlier invaders. 

As for colour, complexion, one can hardly look at 
Virchow's maps, the result of the gigantic inquest 
carried out under his direction on the school children, 
without coming to the conclusion that both latitude 
and race must have to do with it. Beginning with 
Sleswick, and then with the coast-line generally, one 
finds a pretty regular falling off in blond hair and 
blue eyes, and an increase in dark hair and brown 
eyes, as one gradually proceeds southwards. It is 
more when one looks into details that one recognises 
the influence of race, when one sees for example 
that Wurtemberg is fairer than Alsass and Bavaria, 
which were later colonized ; and those who are 
acquainted with the minute history of the provinces 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. Ill 

of Germany can point you out numbers of instances 
of that kind, but not such sharp contrasts as that 
between the Flemings and Walloons. 

Stature is another point of race difference. The 
Wends were not much darker than the old Germans, 
it would seem, but they were not so tall, while the 
Frisians were taller than the Danes and Low 
Germans ; and this difference follows them up in 
the parishes or cantons which they respectively 
colonized in Mecklenburg or further east. One in- 
vestigator thinks that elevation of level has to do 
with elevation of stature; another thinks he can 
show that rich soil is more operative ; but they all 
agree that race does tell, and they can all give reasons 
for their belief. 

One can see that the difference of latitude between 
Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria may have something 
to do with the fact that the former had 80 per cent, 
of children fair-haired, and the latter only 54 ; (I do 
not say that it has, but that it may have) ; but surely 
it is not the cause of the Schleswig conscripts 
averaging 5 ft. 6'6 in., and the Bavarian conscripts 
only 5 ft. 43 in. In Thuringia again, about Erfurt, 
Reichel finds the conscripts average 1670 milli- 
meters (5 ft. 5f in.). That is for the Germanic 
Thuringians, but as one goes eastward there is a 
regular decline of stature as the Slavonic element 
increases, until about Halle, where the peasantry are 
Germanized Slavs, the average is just under 5 ft. 5 in. 
Yet the Halle district is the most fruitful. 

As for the permanence of hair-colour, let us look 
again at Bohemia. We know that the Germans, 

112 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

about the year 1000, regarded the Slavs as a people 
less fair than themselves, though it may be that this 
opinion did not refer to the northern Wends. And 
we know that Ibrahim ibn Jacub, a Jewish traveller, 
who wrote about a.d. 965, found the Bohemians 
swarthy, usually with black, seldom with light hair. 
Old Bohemian chroniclers contrast the black hair 
and beards of their countrymen with the light 
colours of the Saxons. Since then Bohemia has 
been largely colonised by Germans, chiefly from the 
fair Saxon, not from the darker Bavarian side. And 
now the schools are divided into Bohemian or Czech, 
German, and mixed. Well! the proportion borne 
by the number of children with dark hair to that of 
those with light hair, amounts in the — 
German schools to - - '718 dark, 1,000 light. 
In the Mixed schools to - 1,398 „ 1,000 „ 
and in the Czech schools to 1,793 „ 1,000 „ 
And it is curious that of 35 Czechish districts the 
one which has the lowest proportion is called 
Deutsch Brod, German Brod, doubtless because 
there was once a Germany colony there, which has 
been Slavonized in course of time in point of lang- 
uage, but not in that of colour. 

As France is the country in which anthropology 
has been most zealously cultivated, and whose own 
material has perhaps been best worked up, it is very 
difficult to compress my account of it within the 
necessary limits, and I shall avoid all discussion of 
difficult points. Belgium will be best included with 

You may have gathered from an earlier lecture 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 113 

that before the neolithic period brachykephalic as 
well as dolichokephalic types of man were already 
domiciled in France. The dolmens, which in the 
western and north-western parts of France, but 
especially in Bretagne, are very numerous, contain 
in some cases only long-headed skeletons, but in 
others there is a mixture of the types, such as does 
not occur in England and Scotland. Whether the 
long-headed dolmen builders were of the same race 
as the older, Cro-magnon and Solutre, people, is 
very doubtful; the general belief is that some of 
them, at all events, belonged to an early wave of 
the blond northern conquerors, and that these 
passed over into Africa (where dolmens are exceed- 
ingly numerous, and continued to be erected down 
to a late period), and were the same people who 
appeared in the Egyptian wall-paintings as fair and 
blue-eyed, under the names of Tahen-nu, Tamahu, 
and Lebo or Lybians. It is, however, quite con- 
ceivable that the " swart Egyptians," struck by the 
exceptional occurrence of a proportion of blonds 
among their Libyan foes (who may have come from 
Auress or the Riff, or some other mountainous 
region where the type survives to this day), made 
use of the peculiarity to distinguish in their wall- 
paintings the entire Libyan race. What we may 
really be certain of is, that the old long-heads 
mixed with the short -headed people, of whom 
probably a new wave had come in from the east 
and brought with them the domestic animals and 
some of the arts (though here again I am lapsing 
into the dubious) — what we may feel sure of is that 

114 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

much amalgamation took place, that subsequently 
one or more waves of blond conquerors came in 
from east and north-east, and overlaid the greater 
part of the country, and that when the Roman 
period arrived they constituted a military aristoc- 
racy, which was particularly strong in the north- 
east, i.e., in Belgium. This blond race or caste was 
called the Galli, Galatai ; the French call their type 
the Kymric, and mostly believe that it was also that 
of the Kimmerians ; but the nation was that of the 
Kelts, and the mass of it, which, without much 
positive evidence, is supposed to have been short, 
sturdy, and of rather dark complexion, as it is now, 
is spoken of by the French, since Broca's time, as 
Keltic. This it is important to remember. Those 
who think the blond northern long-headed people 
were the original fabricators, or even the importers 
into Europe, of the Aryan language, mostly suppose 
that they imposed it at some time, not necessarily 
after their arrival in France, upon the Kelts, who in 
such case must have previously spoken an allo- 
phylian, not an Aryan, tongue. If, however, this 
conversion of the Kelts to Aryanism took place in 
France, it is quite conceivable that they had previ- 
ously imposed their own language on the Iberians, 
or Mediterranean long -heads, whom they had 
themselves subdued and overlaid already. This 
suggestion I quote, but do not endorse. 

The position, then, in the time of Caesar, was on 
this wise : — Beyond the Garonne, and along the 
Pyrenees, and as far east as the Rhone, the Aquit- 
anians, an Iberian people. In the corner east of the 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 115 

Rhone, the Ligurians, of whom more presently. 
Throughout the mass of the country, from east and 
south-east to west and north-west, pressing across 
the Garonne, and stretching northward beyond the 
'Seine, the Keltic nationality, composed as before 
described. North-east of them, extending almost 
or altogether as far as the Rhine, the Belgae, in whom 
the Galatic element was stronger than in the Kelts, / 
and who were beginning to be pressed upon and 
interpenetrated by the next wave of blond long- 
headed warriors, the Germans. Finally, on some 
parts of the course of the Rhine, tribes thought to 
be German rather than Galatic had already estab- 
lished themselves on the left bank. 

Subsequent changes were these : — The Roman 
domination may have somewhat Italianized the 
blood in particular districts, especially about the 
Mediterranean coasts. The Kelts probably con- 
tinued for some centuries to gain ground on the 
Iberians beyond the Garonne. The blond, or as the 
French say, the Kymric element, had probably been 
considerably diminished during Caesar's conquests ; 
but, as the empire declined, this was again some- 
what increased by the settlement, especially in the 
north-east, of Germanic captives as colonists. 

At the time of the Volkswanderung, almost the 
whole land was overrun and settled on by several 
nations, mostly, but not all Germanic. In some 
parts, however, the occupancy was simply military 
or political. The Franks, for example, Salian and 
Ripuarian, settled thickly in Flanders and Brabant 
and along the left bank of the Middle Rhine respec- 

116 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

tively ; they also spread in a thin stratum over 
most of the country north of the Loire and of 
Burgundy, and somewhat more thickly in the 
neighbourhood of Laon and Soissons, but scarcely 
at all in Bretagne. 

The Saxons, following the Franks, completely 
Germanized Flanders and Brabant, the Frisians co- 
operating. The respective shares of these people in 
the work are difficult to appreciate, but Vander- 
kindere has made the attempt, relying chiefly on 
the analysis of local names. Saxons also settled 
numerously about Bayeux and Caen, in what 
afterwards became Normandy : they colonized the 
peninsula of Batz in south Brittany, and probably 
the Isle of Ushant, which has still the distinction of 
producing the tallest and finest breed of men in 
Brittany. The Burgundians settled in Savoy ^ and 
in the Jura, and about Geneva and Lyons, and 
subsequently in the country which still bears their 
name. The Visigoths became the rulers of the 
whole south of France, and gave a new military 
aristocracy to many parts of it, not however to 
Auvergne, where the Gallo-Roman gentry were not 
displaced. The Franks, though they became politi- 
cally dominant in the south after the defeat of the 
Goths at Vouille, do not seem to have settled there 
to any extent. 

Finally, the Norwegians and other Scandinavians 
occupied Normandy in large numbers, and settled 


^ Probably they more or less completely abandoned Savoy subse- 
quently, as no trace of their type seems to be found there now. 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 117 

also in the north-east corner of Brittany, and to the 
south of the Middle Loire, in proportion sufficient, 
perhaps, to leave traces in the local forms and com- 

The relations of stature, head-breadth, and colour, 
have been carefully studied both in France and 
Belgium. In the latter country the results obtained 
by observation are remarkably clear and satisfactory. 
Vanderkindere managed to effect the investigation 
of the colours of the hair and eyes of the school 
children, and found that the line of demarcation 
between the blonds and the brunettes coincided 
pretty closely with that of language. The Flemish- 
speaking cantons have the most blonds, the Walloon- 
speaking have the most brunettes. The line of the 
division runs due east and west, a little south of 
Brussels and a little north of Liege. 

Scarcely less satisfactory are Houze's observations 
on head -form, which, however, do not extend beyond 
provinces to cantons. But all the provinces north of 
Vanderkindere's line have populations with longer 
or narrower heads than any of those to the south of 
it. In the north, or Flemish division, the range is 
from 7670 in Limburg to 78'31 in West Flanders, in 
the south from 78'51 in Namur to 8117 in Belgian 

Now, of course, stature ought to follow the same 
rules, and be higher to the north than to the south 
of the frontier line of language. And so it is. Every 
northern province stands above every southern one. 
Limburg, the most purely Germanic and the most 
long-headed, has also the tallest inhabitants (1666 

118 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

millimeters =5 ft. 5*6 in.*), and Hainault, which has 
the most brunettes, has the shortest. The rule holds 
good even to the length of the nose. The Flemings 
have the most long, the Walloons the most broad 
noses : the Bruxellese, lying in Brabant, but nearer 
the Walloon border, naturally come between, but 
nearest to the Flemings. 

The point of stature is, I think, particularly re- 
markable. Flanders and Brabant are flat, damp, 
studded with unhealthy manufacturing towns; 
the Walloon provinces are generally hilly, breezy, 
agricultural or pastoral, and their recruits are on 
the whole healthier, and fewer or quite as few of 
them are absolutely undersized; and stature is 
of all hereditary qualities one of the most easily 
affected by media ; and yet withal the Flemings are 
on the average taller than the Walloons, by virtue 
of hereditary right. 

A great deal of work of the same kind has been 
done in France, and the results have been often, but 
not always clear and satisfactory. Edwards pointed 
out the prevalence of his Kymric type — long head, 
square high forehead, long high nose, fair skin — the 
well-known head of Dante has something of the 
form — in the north-east of France. Then Boudin 
and Broca proved that the departments in which 
high stature prevailed formed a compact mass ex- 
tending from the Straits of Dover and the mouth of 
the Seine to the Jura and the Rhone, while those 

^ These figures refer to conscripts. Full-grown men would probably 
be nearly an inch taller, perhaps 5 ft. 6.J inches, or about the average 
height of southern Englishmen. 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 119 

where stature was lowest were aggregated in a 
central mass, for the most part, with prolongations 
to Brittany and the Pyrenees, while the departments 
fringing the Bay of Biscay from the Loire to the 
Pyrenees, and those bordering the Mediterranean, 
occupied mostly an intermediate position. I have 
spoken already of the double maxima of stature 
discovered by Bertillon the elder in the lists of the 
Doubs, indicating a mixture of two races, one of the 
Keltic, with a stature of about 5 ft. 4 in., the other, 
presumably Burgundian, of about 5 ft. 8 in. The 
same phenomenon was subsequently discovered in 
the lists of several of the northern provinces, such 
as the Oise and the lower Seine, where the taller 
men may be taken to represent the Galatae, Franks, 
and Normans.^ 

Next followed Topinard with his great inquest 
into coloration. On the whole, its results are not 
far from what might have been expected ; of those 
that are otherwise, some may depend on the personal 
or local equation of the observers ; though Topinard 
guarded himself as much as possible against this, by 
issuing to his assistants standards of colour ; others 
may depend on migrations or settlements anterior 
to history, or which have taken place silently and 
unnoticed in more modern days. 

The north-west and extreme north come first, or 
are most blond ; then the north-east and the region 
of the Jura, then Brittany, the Isle of France, Savoy, 
Berry, the Creuse, the Charente, then most of the 

^ Lagneau, Anthrapologie do la France, p. 41. See diagram. 

120 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

centre and west centre, the Alps, etc., then Poitou, 
Aquitaine and Languedoc and Auvergne, finally 
the Pyrenees, Provence, and Corsica. 

Of anomalies the most curious is the rather high 

position of Creuse, which is certain though unex- 
plained. Morbihan, too, stands second in the whole 
list, which I can hardly understand, unless there are 
portions of it very different from the parts about 
Auray which I have visited. The Veneti, its old 
inhabitants, were said to be Belgic ; but Caesar, as I 
have told you already, says he exterminated them. 

Thirdly comes Collignon's investigation of the 
headbreadth, extending also to every department. 
The resulting maps differ more, perhaps, from those 
of stature and colour than these two differ from 
each other ; for of the three great race-divisions of 
France the true Celts are intermediate in colour, 
but stand perhaps last in stature, while they have 
by far the broadest heads. On the map of head- 
breadth, therefore, they distinguish themselves most 
clearly. They occupy the entire east of France, the 
maximum of breadth being found in the Jura, with 
a secondary maximum in the Cevennes. One pro- 
longation is pushed across the Upper Garonne to 
the Western Pyrenees, another into Touraine, Maine, 
and Brittany. The southern coast is occupied by 
the long-headed Mediterranean race, which is at its 
purest in Corsica and Rousillon ; while the northern 
long-headed race streams in from the Flemish 
frontier, as far as Normandy and the Isle of France. 
But there is another comparatively long-headed 
area, including eleven departments, of which the 

Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 121 

Gironde and the Cher are the two extremes in local 
position, and which can Only be supposed to repre- 
sent the primitive long-headed (say Cro-magnon) 
race, only moderately crossed by the Celts, and 
somewhat reinforced by the northern blonds. 

Taking the three maps together (those of Boudin 
and Broca of Topinard and of Collignon) we get 
this impression. First, that there is a short dark 
long-headed race, which was aboriginal or else came 
in across the Pyrenees ; this is the Iberian or Medi- 
terranean, and is most pure, I repeat, in Rousillon 
and Corsica. Secondly, a short, thick-set rather 
dark and broad-headed race, which streamed in 
from the east, from the side of the Alps and the 
Jura, and so to the west-north-west and west-south- 
west, towards Brittany and the Pyrenees. Thirdly, 
a tall, blond, long-headed race, which came in from 
the north and north-east, and also to some extent 
by sea. This one, crossing with the second, has 
produced the tall, blond, short-headed people of the 
north-east (Lorraine, Burgundy and Tranche Comte) 
and crossing with the first, to a less extent, may 
have helped to produce some unexplained phenom- 
ena in the west. There are, of course, sub-divisions 
and sub-types also, but these we have not now space 
to consider. 

Those who are disposed to make much of the 
influence of external agencies may note that in 
France, as elsewhere in Europe, the roundest heads 
are found in the mountainous districts. Of the 
provinces of France, Brittany has been especially 
studied by Broca, Guibert, Collignon and Chassagne. 

122 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Here it is pretty clear that the blond people arrived 
on the sea-coast, and thence filtered in along the 
most easy channels, in some cases along the Roman 
roads, with the result that at present the small, 
swarthy round-headed breed is found most pure in 
the central moorlands. De la Bourdonnais, return- 
ing from travelling in the Himalaya, says these 
Bretons are Mongoloid ; ^ and Renan, also a Breton, 
when he visited a Lapp encampment, saw there 
types of women and children, traits and customs, 
which woke up in him his oldest memories. There 
must, he thought, have been intermixture between 
some branches of the Celts and some race resembling 
the Lapps. "My ethnic formula for the Breton 
would be," he adds, " a Celt, mixed with a Gascon, 
and crossed with a Lapp." 

In the Aveyron, the Rouergue, or land of the 
Rutheni, where Collignon finds a breadth index of 
83*50,^ Durand de Gros says that all the ancient 
skulls found are long and narrow. The peasants 
now have invariably broad skulls, but the educated 
townspeople have not ; ^ moreover, while the peas- 
ants are dark, the country squires, probably of 
Gothic descent, are generally fair. 

All these facts may perhaps be explicable on the 
theory of permanence of types ; the ancient skulls 

^ Voyage en Basse Bretagne, etc. Paris, 1892. 

2 Reduced from the living, as usual. 

* Lapouge, in the Herault, and Ammon in Swabia, find long heads 
prevalent in the past, in towns, in the upper and cultivated classes, 
short heads in the present, in the country, in uncultivated plebeians. 
























































































f 1 





















\ i 



■ I ' 







\ \ 


















A ■ 


















5 o> 









Scandinavia, Central Europe, France. 123 

preserved may have belonged wholly to a ruling 
race, who were Galatic ; and the short swarthy 
round-headed peasantry may have existed on the 
land then and during all subsequent revolutions. 
But any other interpretation involves extreme 



Spain and Portugal — De A.ranza(li on the Basques — Italy : The 
Ancient and Modern Romans — The Sards, purest race in 
Western Europe — The Jews ; their original and secondary types 
— The Gypsies — Brief sketch of the Races of Britain : Specimen 
districts — Pembrokeshire — The Isle of Man. 

rpHE history of Spain and Portugal is for our 
-*- purpose comparatively simple, so far as we 
know it. The famous Gibraltar skulls, described 
by Busk, are long (75'2). At Mugem, in Portugal, 
certain crania reported by Oliveira, and believed to 
be quaternary, yielded the usual greatly discrepant 
measurements. Two long heads averaged a breadth 
of 73-8, but three other skulls gave 82'8, 86-9, and 93'4 ! 
these last are described as Mongoloid or Lappish 
in form. Later specimens are mostly long, and MM. 
Siret and Jacques, who disinterred near Almeria a 
vast number of the early metallic period, found that 
most of them were of that modified "Cro-magnon 
type which we call Iberian, and which De Quatre- 
fages and Hamy, describe thus: "Large volume, 
lengthened form, subpentagonal shape in the 'norma 
verticalis,' width of face, low or vertically com- 
pressed orbits, long and narrow nose (leptorhine)." 
This description, with little modification, would 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 125 

apply to a great many Gaels, whether Irish or 

Subsequent invaders have not probably altered 
the type very much, except locally and in certain 
classes. We do not know much about the Kelt- 
iberians ; nor whether any modification of the true 
Keltic type can be found in, for example, Aragon or 
Galicia. ^ All the other invaders of Spain have been 
dolichokephalic, more or less, whether Carthagin- 
ians, Romans (mesokephalic, strictly speaking), Goths 
and Suevians, Saracens. Of these last, the Berber 
element, which was probably larger than the Arab, 
was nearly identical with the Iberian in type, differ- 
ing most obviously in the form of the nose, which 
is shorter and broader. The Basques have been 
supposed to be the purest specimens of the Iberian 
race; and have been the objects of much scientific 
curiosity on that account. William von Humboldt 
thought their language Turanian; and some wicked 
fellow seems to have sent to Retzius three skulls, 
which purported to be Basque, and possibly were so, 
and which happened to be most Mongolically round. 
Broca, however, got possession of the occupants of a 
churchyard in Guipuzcoa, and found their skulls 
were rather long than short, but in the manner 
called occipital dolichokephaly, i.e., roughly, with a 
large proportion of the length abaft the ears. They 
were capacious, larger than ordinary Parisian skulls, 
and on the whole answered to the Iberian type, as 
lately described. 

^ Fifty Asturians had a breadth-index of 79-0, thirty-eight Gallegos 
77*3. See note further on. 

126 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Dr. Telesforo de Aranzadi y Unamuno, himself a 
Basque of Guipuzcoa, has produced a careful mono- 
graph on the physical characters of his own people. 
I may mention some of his results. He finds the 
index of headbreadth, corrected, 111. The average 
stature at the age of 21 ranges in different towns 
and villages from 1610 to 1680, or from 5 ft. 3 in. to 
5 ft. 6 in., which is beyond that of southern France. 
He finds, per cent., of the eyes, 19 blue, 3 gray, 17 
green, 18 greenish hazel, 1 blueish hazel, 41 brown ; of 
the hair, 23 blond (rubio), 13 medium, 40 dark brown 
(eastano), 24 black (moreiio). These proportions of 
colour, having been noted according to Broca's scale, 
may be fairly relied upon, and indicate a greater 
tendency to blondness (xanthosity) than might have 
been expected. Moreover, De Aranzadi's elaborate 
maps show that the blonds and blue-eyed folk are 
not confined to the ports or great ways of communi- 
cation, where recent colonization from abroad might 
have been suspected; but that they are scattered 
pretty uniformly through the country. Certainly 
we have not here arrived at the focus of the brun- 
ettes of Western Europe. 

In the graphic curve of headbreadth there are two 
distinct maxima, one at 76 and one at 80, or, in the 
skull, after reduction, 74 and 78, indicating probably 
that there are at least two elements in the race. 
De Aranzadi thinks that there are three, one with 
dark hair and eyes, rather narrow head, middle 
stature, broad mandible, nose often concave — a 
second with green or greenish-hazel eyes, darkish 
brown hair, a broad head, low stature, breadth be- 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 127 

tween the eyes, narrow mandible ; and a third with 
blue eyes, light hair, narrow head, straight narrow 
nose, tall stature. He supposes the first of these to 
be the true Iberian, and related to the Berber, the 
second to be Ugrian or Finnish,^ the third to be a 
later addition, Kymric or Germanic; and he evi- 
dently, but cautiously, indicates the conjecture that 
this last is related to the accursed race of the Cagots, 
who used to be relegated to separate hamlets or 
villages, and had a separate church door for them- 
selves. '^ 

' Some would say Keltic. It is common in Bretagne, I should say. 

'De Aranzadi, with De Hoyos Sainz as coUoborator, has, since the 
delivery of these lectures, laid a foundation for the physical anthro- 
pology of Spain, which, based upon observation of about 450 skulls, 
from all parts of Spain except the east, gives hopes of general sound- 
ness, though the smallness of the numbers from certain provinces does 
not allow confidence in its details. Spain resembles Britain, apparently, 
in having no brachykephalic province. But De Aranzadi and De Hoyos 
detect the influence of broad-headed Keltic invaders on the native 
Iberian breed, especially in Asturias and Estremadura. In Asturias, 
where it is greatest, the people are said to be sturdy and thickest, with 
brown hair and eyes, and with large heads averaging 79 in breadth- 
index (in the skull). The Berber element, brought in by the Moors, 
and powerful in the south of Spain, is discriminated by greater breadth 
of nose from the true Iberian. Olovir has since followed with his 
valuable and elaborate memoir on the kephalic index, which confirms 
generally the conclusions already stated. It would seem that the 
Keltic invaders of Spain must have entered it by the western extremity 
of the Pyrenees and pushed chiefly in a western direction. The east of 
Spain must have remained pretty purely Iberian, and is strongly 
dolichokephalic to this day : the centre and south vary locally, but 
the indices are either dolicho or raeso. The types were probably not 
much affected by the Carthaginian and Saracen colonizations : the in- 
vaders were largely Berbers, and the Semitic Arabs were not widely 
different.. The extreme length and narrowness of the nose in the 
finest Highland type of face is mainly attributable, I think, to the 
Iberian element in them. 

128 The A nthropological History of Europe. 

Portugal has long had a peculiar interest for us 
Englishmen. It was with English aid and guidance 
that she won her independence at Aljubarotta, the 
Portuguese Bannockburn, against the Castillians and 
their French allies. The northern Portuguese are, 
I believe, much like the Gallegos, a Keltiberian race 
with some admixture of the Germanic Suevian, who 
filled in the North-west of the Peninsula the role 
which the Visigoths played elsewhere. But the 
heroic race of Lusitania, the conquerors of Brazil, of 
Abyssinia, of Congo, of Mozambique, of the Indies, 
were exhausted in those mighty efforts; and the 
southern Portuguese, especially the townsfolk, are 
said not only to be largely of Moorish and Semitic 
blood, but to have greatly degenerated. 

In Italy, as in most other countries, the skulls 
with any pretensions to quaternary date are mostly 
long, but very broad ones do occur among them. 

A little later a number of skulls found in various 
parts of North Italy, and studied by Nicolucci, give 
indices running up to very high figures, and have 
furnished the basis for the construction of what is 
generally called the Ligurian type, a very broad 
form resembling the Keltic, but distinct in facial 
features. In the Bolognese succeeded each other 
the Umbrian populations (heads broadish), the Et- 
ruscan (mesokephal, about 77-78, rather Semitic in 
appearance), and the Keltic or Gallokeltic (broader 
again). The modern heads are yet a little broader, 
and better developed anteriorly. But about Rome, 
Nicolucci has brought out a striking fact. The heads 
of the old Romans were of a fine type, well balanced, 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 129 

well rounded, yet boldly outlined, full alike in 
temples and occiput, giving one somehow the idea 
of strength and practical ability— at least one thinks 
so. But their main dimensions are exactly the same 
as those of the modern Romans. 

Ancients, . . . Breadth, 781. Height, 73-8. 
Moderns, . . . Breadth, 78' 2. Height, 73'2. 

No advance here certainly ; but perhaps one might 
rather have expected retrogression. For the old 
crania that have been preserved for us were not 
those of slaves and proletarii, whereas the modern 
ones are probably for the most part of low class. 

The history of Italy is that of successive waves of 
invasion from the north, mostly, however, spending 
themselves in the north. The fertile and attractive 
Sicily was the object of desire and prey to every 
ambitious or predatory race, from the Carthaginians 
and Greeks, to the Saracens, Normans, French, and 
Spaniards. But in Calabria, Corsica, Sardinia, pro- 
bably the first occupants, Mediterranean, Iberian 
if you will, are still the preponderating element. 
They are short, dark, well formed, and decidedly 
long-headed. In Sardinia, where they are most 
free from admixture, the skull breadth averages 
72'8, and varies little. Nine ancient Sards gave 
one of 725, practically identical. The hair of the 
Sards is said to almost always black: the stature 
of conscripts at twenty years is but 5 ft. 2*6 in. 
(159 cm.^) ; while the Sicilians, of more mixed blood. 

^ Livi. This seems to be about the average : it varies in the nine 
districts from 5 ft. 1-3 in. to 5 ft. 4 in. 

130 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

rise to 5 ft, 3'3 in. Throughout Italy the stature 
may easily be accounted for by considerations of 
race, but hardly in any other way. Thus the 
Piedmontese, Kelto-Ligurian, and very broad - 
headed (83 to 89, living index) are short (5 ft. 3'8 in. 
— 162 cm.), the Venetians, mainly lUyrian, with a 
little of the Lombard, are broad-headed too (84*8 
to 85*5), but much taller (165 cm.^— 5 ft. 5 in.),^ thus 
resembling their neighbours and kinsfolk on the 
north-east of the Adriatic. In the south, as well 
as in the islands, narrow heads and low stature 
prevail, though the stature does not vary exactly 
in accordance with the head-breadth. There are 
some anomalies, especially in Central Italy, which 
we are quite unable to explain. Thus the very 
highest average stature (166'25 — 5 ft. 5| in.) occurs 
in the neighbourhood of Lucca, but in combination 
with a rather long and narrow head ; while on the 
other hand there is a district extending eastwards 
from Gaeta along the coast, where the inhabitants 
combine a shorter stature, a narrower head, and a 
distinctly lighter colour^ than those obtaining in 
any neighbouring district. 

This may be the best opportunity for the 
consideration of the physical type of the Jews. 
As is the case with so many other people whom we 
have had to discuss, the two most usual physical 
tests of race, namely head-breadth and hair-colour, 

^ Ridolfo Livi, Statura degli Italian!. L'Indice Cefalice degli Italiani. 

2 The frequency of blonds was remarked by Dr. Hodgkin as well as 
by myself. The area was that of the Volsci, I believe. 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 131 

when applied to the Hebrews, seem at first sight 
to result in complete failure; but it is only at first 
sight. The Jews are generally what Huxley calls 
melanochroi: that is, they are white men with 
dark hair. But there is everywhere among them 
a proportion of blondes, and a quite notable one 
of red-haired or red-bearded individuals. As for 
their skulls, there are two well-marked types; 
one, and probably the original, is the one we are 
more familiar with : it is long, ooidal, rather narrow 
in forehead, and resembles the Arabian very closely, 
as might have been expected. The other is larger 
and much broader, and is found chiefly in countries 
where the prevailing Gentile type is broad. The 
natural interpretation of these facts is, that the 
Jews are a much less purely bred population than 
they are generally supposed by themselves and 
others to be ; and that, wherever they are, they take 
in sufficient of the surrounding anthropological 
elements to assimilate their form of head to the 
prevailing one. The former of these statements is 
doubtless correct, but not the latter. It is true 
that there have been periods and localities — the 
Gothic period of Spain, for example, that of the 
Khazar empire in southern Russia, and the early 
period of Hungarian history — when proselytism 
prevailed, when conversions to Judaism were 
common, and intermarriage occurred frequently. 
But for many centuries such has not been the case 
unless to a very trivial extent, and conversions in 
the other direction can only have tended to Judaize 
the Gentiles, not to Gentilize the Jews. The facial 

132 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

features of the race, again, are very characteristic, 
and are almost as universal among the brachy- 
kephalic as among the dolichokephalic Jews, fining 
down a little, but still noticeable, in the blonde 

Roughly speaking, the Sephardim or Spanish 
Jews belong to the long-headed ; the Ashkenazim 
or German, Polish, and Russian Jews to the broad- 
headed type; but not only the Dutch, but the 
north - west German Jews must apparently be 
counted with the former: thus the indices of 
breadth in the small collections of Gottingen and 
Amsterdam are both 77 or 78, with moderate 
elevation. In London, Messrs. Jacobs and Spielman, 
the former in two elaborate papers,^ have devoted 
attention to these points. Curiously enough, they 
seem to deem it needful to make a kind of apology 
for the presence among their fellow-people of so 
many longheads, as though they were an inferior 
race. This is a kind of sign of the times : the 
broader-headed Ashkenazim are crowding in: for- 
merly the Sephardim were the more respected, 
and they certainly have the original type. The 
Italian Jews are Sephardim, and those of the 
Levant belong to the same class: they are some- 
times blonde and often red-bearded, more often 
than is the case with any other of the numerous 
races mingled in those parts, so that they can 
hardly have acquired this character from their 
neighbours. Ikow found the index of breadth in 

^Journal of the Anthr. Institute, Vols. 15 and 19. 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 133 

the Jews from south of the Balkan only 74*5.^ 
They are in large proportion descendants of the 
Spanish Jews, once so numerous and influential 
in that country, and so ruthlessly persecuted and 
expelled by the Catholic sovereigns : most of these 
were hospitably received by the more tolerant 

Now for the other type. It is not recent, for 
KoUmann of Basel found, in a collection from an 
Israelite cemetery of mediaeval date, a very high 
index. It does not vary up and down with the index 
of the neighbours, for Majer and Kopernitsky found 
it 81*5 in Galicia, whereas that of the Poles is 82*4, 
and of the Ruthenians (Red Russians) 82'3 ; ^ and 
Stieda and Dybrowski found it 83 in sixty -seven Jews 
of Minsk, near the Lithuanian frontier, where the 
index of the natives is pretty surely less. Ikow in 
Russia found it 81'3, Blechmann something more. 
It is evident that the true Syrian-Hebrew type is in 
a decided minority. The Karaites of the south give 
an index of 83'3: they show distinct signs, especially 
in their broad flat faces, of Tartar admixture, 
probably dating from the time of the Khazars, 
whose Khan with many of his people long pro- 
fessed Judaism, and that as early as the eighth 
century. The breadth of the skull is exaggerated 
in the Karaites, as I believe it to be in some other 
little-suspected cases, by the use of a cradle-board 
in infancy. 

^Archiv fur Anthropoloffie. 

' After the proper deductions for the soft parts. 

134 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

There is not time to discuss the facts which are 
cited by Ikow from Halevy, and which indicate that 
Jews, coming probably through the Caucasus from 
Babylonia and Persia, were already in Russia in the 
first century of our era, and that the type which 
now prevails among Russian Jews is derived from the 
various Assyrian, Armenian, Iranian and Caucasian 
people among whom they dwelt and proselytized 
during the centuries after the captivity, and in the 
course of their northward progress. The only con- 
siderable difficulty that remains is the occurrence of 
the broad large head among the mediaeval Jews in 
Paris ^ as well as in Basel. Had the Russian Jews 
already begun to press westwards ; or was it purely 
a result of prosely tism from the Kelts ? 

As for colour, there is an approach to a national 
type, which causes the Jews to rank as a dark race 
among the fair people of northern Europe, but as a 
fair one in the Levant. The frequency of red hair 
among them is curious: it has been noted almost 
everywhere, though it is nowhere so extremely 
common as some would have us believe. But there 
is much red pigment in the hair of all Jews whom I 
have examined; though usually the abundance of 
dark pigment obscures the fact. Jacobs therefore 
suggests that the flagrancy of red hair among them 
is due to some defect of nutrition, whereby the 
common dark pigment is not secreted. This ex- 
planation, so far as it is one, would obviously apply 
to other rufous races also. I long ago suggested^ 

^ Crania Bthnica, p. 513. 

"^Phys. Char, of the Jewish Mace. Ethnol. Transactions. 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 135 

that the Jews might have inherited the red colour 
from the Edomites, the descendants of Esau, who 
were ultimately incorporated ; but Jacobs very truly 
remarks that we have no proof that the Edomites 
were red-haired. The redness indicated by their 
name may have been the colour of the soil, or the 
tint of skin. Professor Sayce has put forward a 
most plausible conjecture. The Egyptians repre- 
sented the Amorites as red-haired; and their remains 
were almost certainly incorporated by the Jews. 

The history of the Gypsies should be interesting 
to Scotchmen, as owing to the character of the 
country in former days, which rather invited those 
so disposed to a wandering life, Scotland was a 
favourite resort with these extraordinary people. 
The earliest notice that we have, which can possibly 
refer to them, is the account given by Herodotus of 
the Sigynnae, who in his day occupied Hungary : he 
gives a particular account, often quoted, of their 
little hairy ponies, not fit for riding, but swift in 
drawing chariots. The names Sigynnae and Zig- 
euner must assuredly be one and the same : it is not 
easy to explain how it came to be given, after the 
lapse of so many centuries, to a people having no 
connection with the one which first bore it ; and it 
is curious that the Gypsies should to-day be most 
numerous precisely in the old territories of the 
Sigynnae. The difficulty would however be much 
greater of getting over the statements of their hav- 
ing first appeared in Europe after the ravages of 
Tamerlane in India. Their presence, and numbers 
and conspicuousness in Scotland were made use of. 

136 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

some years ago, by Mr. D. M'Ritchie, who wrote a 
work on Scottish ethnology, in which he treated 
them as the remains of a primitive dark race (Allo- 
phylian, perhaps, rather than Turanian), once 
numerous and even powerful, but bearing to the 
civilised inhabitants the status of outlaws, a kind of 
relation like that of the Iliyats in Persia to the 
Tajiks, or rather, perhaps, that of the Bushmen to 
the other inhabitants of South Africa. 

The ballads and traditions about Johnny Faa, 
Lord of Little Egypt, and the Countess of Cassilis, 
are curious: — 

' And we were fifteen well-made men, 
Altho' we were na bonnie ; 
And we were a' put down for ane, 
A fair young wanton leddy.' 

Here comes out the popular dislike to a swarthy 
complexion, with a testimony to the unmistakable 
beauty of physical frame which characterises these 
people, their lithe, light graceful bodies, whose 
mould was formed, centuries ago, in a warm out- 
door climate, but remains unaltered in the damp 
chilly north. Their complexion does not seem to 
have changed much : apparent exceptions may well 
be ascribed to admixture by adoption. Kopernitsky 
has written an elaborate paper on their form of 
head and face, which is thoroughly Indian. The 
skull is oval, rarely elliptical, the forehead being 
narrow and the temporal regions flat, so that the 
cheekbones, though not really wide, stand out. 
The face is rather long, there is a slight degree of 
prognathism of the upper-jaw, the nose is long, 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 137 

narrow above and gradually and regularly widening 
downwards, a very characteristic feature. The 
index of breadth is 77'1, of height 75 — very good 
proportions; but on the whole the skull is small. 

Now at last we come to the British Isles. I 
find it impossible to put into a lecture what I 
have had some difficulty in compressing into a 
moderate-sized volume. I will, therefore, simply 
give a very brief sketch of the history; and then 
enter into some details regarding a few specimen 
districts, much as the scholastikos who wished to 
sell his house exhibited a brick from it as a sample. 
I will say nothing about eoliths or their hypo- 
thetical producers. Any opinion I may have of 
them can have very little value; and they cannot 
be said to enter into the domain of history. 

Britain has received its successive populations, as 
it has accepted its fashions, from the neighbouring 
continent, and has, therefore, always been behind- 
hand in these respects. We had our palaeolithic 
men, our people who used implements of unpolished 
stone, perhaps a little later than the beginning of 
the rude -stone period in France, but still in the 
time of the great extinct mammals. But we have 
no absolutely indubitable osseous remains of them. 
The Galley Hill skull, for example, is dated later by 
some people. The human remains discovered in the 
Cattedown Cave, near Plymouth, by Mr. Burnard, 
have a strongly probable palaeolithic date, and a by 
no means low or degraded type. Boyd Dawkins 
thinks our palaeolithic men may have been Eskimo, 



138 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

or of Eskimoid type. Did their posterity survive 
in these islands? I believe they did, and do still; 
but he thinks otherwise, and his opinion is of 
course weighty. 

We are accustomed to say that during the 
neolithic period there was but one race of men in 
Britain, that whose remains have come down to us 
in the long barrows or galleried tumuli, and which 
has been frequently described by anthropologists, 
generally with a comparison to the Basques. They 
have a considerable likeness to the grave -row 
skulls: their breadth index, for example, is about 
the same: thus Thurnam gives it at about 71, but 
Barnard Davis's figures work out to 72"8, which is 
probably nearer the real average. The height, 
also, as in the Grave-row type, is apt to exceed the 
breadth : the length often or usually depends more 
on occipital than on frontal development. Points 
of difference are, that the outline of the Grave-row 
or Germanic forehead, in the vertical aspect, is 
usually more convex, while that of the neolithic 
British forehead is flattened and square : the Ger- 
man face, too, is rather more apt to be prognathous. 
To your own townsman,^ Sir Daniel Wilson, now 
of Toronto, is due the credit of the discovery that 
the primitive longheads in Scotland preceded the 
broadheads, and were probably a different race. 
The late Dr. Thurnam afterwards took up the idea,, 
and went far towards proving that it was correct for 

* These lectures were delivered in Edinburgh, and before the 
lamented death of my friend. 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 139 

England also; and his name is more generally known 
in connection with the discovery. 

Now, it is curious that Sir Daniel Wilson selected 
— and figured in his beautiful work on the Prehis- 
toric Annals of Scotland — two crania as specimens 
of this earlier race, in both of which the frontal 
region has the Germanic rather than the Ibero- 
British form. And he proposed for them the name 
of kymbekephalic — boat-shaped — which appears to 
me by no means applicable to most of those I have 
just called Ibero-British. It was intended, I take it, 
to imply a form highly convex, rather than squared, 
in forehead as well as occiput, with possibly a carina 
or heel running along the sagittal region, and giving 
it a roof-like contour. It is conceivable, then, that 
there may have been an ethnic difference between 
the neolithic inhabitants of the northern and south- 
ern parts of the island; the former may have 
belonged to, or at least may have resembled the 
Canstatt type or stock, the latter the Cromagnon. 
Mr. Anderson, however, points out that the horned 
cairns, so numerous and remarkable in Caithness, 
are present from north to south of the whole island, 
and may be an index of the presence of one race 
throughout. Those in Caithness have not, I believe, 
yielded measurable crania, except one from the cairn 
of Get, with an index of 76'5, figures beyond the 
usual upper limit of British neolithic people. 

Linguistic evidence, as Professor Rhys has shewn, 
indicates the presence of an Iberian form of speech 
in ancient Scotland ; and there are those who find 
traces in our island of a Turanian speech, but no 

140 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

one nowadays, I believe, finds any of a prehistoric 
Teutonic one. Again, the cave-men disinterred by 
Boyd Dawkins in North Wales, and particularly the 
skulls from Forth -y-chvkf^areu figured by him, seem 
to me to differ considerably from the common 
British neolithic type, not merely in breadth but in 
physiognomy. I have pointed out, in my book on 
The Races of Britain, the existence in our modern 
population of two distinct types, scattered in small 
numbers over a great part of the west of the British 
Islands. These I call Mongoloid and Africanoid : 
the former is probably descended from the race of 
Furfooz in Belgium ; the latter may be an Iberian 
variety; but its prognathous character separates it 
from the ordinary long-barrow type, which it other- 
wise much resembles. It presents, as a rule, blue or 
grey eyes with dark curly hair, while in the Mongo- 
loid type the eyes are brown and oblique, and the 
hair brown or dark and straight. If the absence of 
the latter from neolithic interments be objected, I 
must answer that serfs are rarely admitted to consort 
with their lords either after or before death, though 
occasionally they may be slaughtered in order to 
accompany a chief to the other world. 

Next came the race which in these islands — 
not elsewhere — is identified with the importers 
and users of bronze. It was robust and tall, 
according to Thurnam, not less than 5 feet 
9 inches (1752 m.m.) in stature, though some later 
authorities think this an exaggerated calculation, 
bony, large-brained, harsh-featured, high -nosed, 
with prominent brows, and a breadth index over 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 141 

80. I believe Park Harrison to be right when he 
affirms that in our times the majority of people 
with these characteristics have light hair and long 
adherent ear-lobes. They resembled the Borreby 
race of Denmark, and the Sion or Helvetian race of 
ancient Switzerland, though with somewhat larger 
breadth. And men of this type, but perhaps gen- 
erally dark-haired, abound among the Walloons of 
southern Belgium. Our race may have come from 
Denmark or from the north of France, or from 
Belgium ; and it may have brought with it an Aryan 
language of the Keltic species. Deniker, and per- 
haps others, find a resemblance between this type 
and the modern lUyrian one ; but the geographical 
remoteness of the two is a difficulty. I confess I 
cannot at all clearly make out from the relics of 
interments a Gaelic and a Kymric-speaking race. 
For if these bronze-folk brought the Gaelic their 
descendants ought to abound in Ireland, which I do 
not think is the case nowadays. Perhaps they 
may have been the ruling race there for a time, but 
have been gradually worked out by continual 
warfare and slaughter. They were apparently a 
permanent breed resulting from a cross of the 
blond longheads with the Kelts, and this, again 
crossed with the Iberians, seems to form a large 
element in our Highland population, particularly, I 
think, in Athol. An important anomaly occurs in 
the East Riding of Yorkshire, where much investi- 
gatory work has been done by Canon Greenwell 
and Dr. Wright, and especially by Mr. Mortimer, 
founder of the Driffield Museum. In that region, 

142 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

round barrows, instead of yielding only broad skulls, 
seem to hold long and short ones indiscriminately, 
and the owners of the latter seem to have been no 
taller, if even so tall as those of the former. 

Mr. John Gray thinks he is able to separate a 
distinct short-headed breed who buried their dead 
in short cists and who were of short or moderate 
stature. One such interment was found at Harlyn 
Bay in North Cornwall, among a community of 
long or middle heads : this was probably late Keltic. 

What and how many may have been the subse- 
quent immigrations from Belgic Gaul we have no 
craniological evidence to show. The practice of 
cremation is no doubt to some extent responsible 
for this lacuna. Sir Daniel Wilson thought that 
another long-headed race, which he called Keltic, 
succeeded the bronze folk in Scotland; but it is 
likely that by that time there was no great mass of 
dolichokephali left in Gaul whence these could have 
been derived; and that Wilson's Kelts were the 
result of the mixture of earlier races. Wilson's 
ideas were but guesses ; he had little material, but 
they were very clever guesses. Of the colonization 
or rather conquest of Ireland by a Keltiberian race 
from Spain, though I strongly believe in it, I am 
not able to say anything from this point of view. 
It is in Kerry that I have found the Keltiberian 
aspect most common. With the Roman occupation 
it is much the same. The racial elements which 
they imported must have extremely mixed, and 
probably left scarcely any permanent traces, though 
there may be some in a few ancient towns such as 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 143 

Gloucester or Leicester. Among relics from the 
Romano-British villages, our knowledge of which 
has been so much increased by General Pitt-Rivers, 
there are one or two skulls which, in the opinion of 
Dr. Garson as well as of myself, show Roman or 
Italian characteristics. 

It may be doubted whether the Anglo-Saxons, at 
the time of their arrival in this country, which I 
for one believe to have been in the fifth century, 
were anything like a homogeneous race. The 
Frisians were largely represented among them, and 
the form which Virchow considers Frisian occurred 
among them, and is common among their descend- 
ants still. For my own part, I doubt whether this 
broader Frisian or Batavian form is anything but a 
variant of the ordinary Germanic, developed perhaps 
under peculiar conditions. At Bremen the two 
forms occurred, according to Gildemeister, in the 
earliest days of the city. Among the Anglo-Saxon 
crania figured by Davis and Thurnam (perhaps I 
should say Saxon, as they are all from the south- 
east of England), those of Wye Hill, Litlington, and 
Brighthampton exhibit the Grave-row type, those 
of Harnham and Linton and Firle, something more 
of the broader and lower Batavian, with the more 
rounded occiput; that of Fairford is a palpable 
mixture of the Saxon father and British mother, 
the former giving the brain-case, as Davis himself 
suggested. John Bull is of the Batavian type : the 
Grave-row, that of the barbarian warrior, is perhaps 
rather more aristocratic ; but the outlines of the 
former may be connected, as Virchow thinks pos- 

144 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

sible, with the obstinacy and love of freedom and 
individuality of both Frisian and Englishman. 
" These men," said an old chronicler of the Frisians, 
" been high of body, stern of virtue, strong and 
fierce of heart: they be free, and not subject to 
lordship of any man; and they put their lives in 
peril by cause of freedom, and would liever die than 
embrace the yolk of thraldrom." 

The Scandinavian invasions increased the pro- 
portions of the blond types in most parts of England 
and Scotland. Perhaps invasions is hardly the 
appropriate term, for in some cases it is clear that 
peaceful and gradual colonization followed the in- 
vasions and ravages. The distinction made by the 
Irish between the Danes and the Norwegians, the 
former of whom they called Black, the latter White 
Strangers, is a matter of curious interest and diffi- 
culty. For the Danes too are generally light com- 
plexioned, though dark hair and eyes are not so 
uncommon, especially among the women. Frequent 
features in the modern Scandinavians are the spade 
or scutiform outline of face, with rather broad (but 
not prominent) cheekbones and a long sweeping 
curve of the lower jaw: this is very notable in 
Cumberland and in Lewis, for example. Some- 
times the profile is classically straight and fine. 
The inion (or occipital tuberosity) is apt to be 
placed high ; and the upper part of the occipital 
region in such cases has not the projection which 
it has in the Hohberg type. 

Subsequent to the Scandinavian colonizations 
were the Norman conquest of England, the so-called 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 145 

Saxon conquest of Scotland, the Anglo-Norman 
conquests of Ireland and Wales, the infiltration of 
the south and east of England with French settlers, 
especially in the towns, the colonization of south 
Pembrokeshire by the Flemings and west-country 
English, that of Ulster by the English and Scotch, 
the later French wave of the Huguenot refugees, in 
the same area as the former one, and several less 
important racial movements. The tendency of the 
still more modern movements of population is 
chiefly from the poorer to the richer districts: thus 
the Welsh have gradually infiltrated the west central 
and the Scotch the northern parts of England, the 
Highlanders have crowded into Glasgow, and, above 
all, the Irish into the towns of Great Britain. On 
the whole, the proportion of the Teutonic element 
and character in the Sassenach has been lessened, in 
the south-east by the intrusion of the small dark 
round-headed Kelt, and elsewhere by that of the 
Kymry and the Gael. 

I will now proceed to examine with some minute- 
ness two or three specially interesting districts. 
The ethnology of Pembrokeshire is perhaps more 
complicated than that of any other part of the 
principality. The best authority upon it is without 
doubt the work of Mr. Edward Laws, The History 
of Little England beyond Wales} 

We have evidence there of the presence of 
the usual neolithic stratum, and of that of the 
brachykephalic bronze race, but very little of 

1 London : George Bell & Sons, 1888. 

146 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Roman occupation. Subsequently to the close of 
the Roman period we find the land harassed by 
the incursions of the Gwyddel Ffichti, the Gaels 
from Ireland. Whether the people thus raided on 
were themselves Gael in language does not appear 
certain ; but if they were not, the occurrence 
of Gaelic settlements from Ireland becomes all 
the more clear. Kymric influence, however, gradu- 
all prevailed in the matter of language, and must 
have been accompanied by a considerable infusion 
of Kymric blood, which was not, however, suffici- 
ently powerful. Laws thinks, to bring about the 
absolute enslavement of the Gaels and Silurians, as 
it was in North Wales. 

The next large element added was that of the 
Scandinavians. We hear more of their raids than 
of their settlements, but there were occasions when 
they came as allies of the Welshmen against Saxon 
or Irish enemies, or as allies of one Welsh chieftain 
against another. Sometimes, no doubt, they settled 
down as traders, or made their fortunes by marriage, 
as Kol the Burner, of Iceland, was about to do (so 
we learn in the Njalsaga), when his plans and his 
life were cut short in a Welsh market-place by his 
avenging countryman Kari Solmundson. 

Mr. Laws reckons no less than 93 Norse place- 
names in Pembrokeshire, though a few of these are 
in my mind doubtful. He puts the question, with 
respect to the occurrence of the terminal " ton " in 
conjunction with Scandinavian personal names (as 
Herbrandston, Lammaston) whether it is due to a 
contemporaneous or a subsequent immigration 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 147 

of Englishmen. I should think it was probably 
contemporaneous. Pembrokeshire has been much 
ravaged and perhaps depopulated by Irishmen and 
by so-called Danes. Ostmen and Irishmen from 
Wexford and Waterford may have been filtering in, 
as their kindred seem to have done into Cumbria 
from the Isle of Man, while in alliance with them 
English exiles, fugitives before the Conqueror per- 
haps, nay, possibly relics of the army of the sons of 
Harold, may have settled down side by side. 

The next intrusive elements were introduced by 
the Norman conquest of Pembrokeshire, and in- 
cluded Anglo-Normans, with a following no doubt 
partly English, but very largely Flemish. The 
extent of this Flemish colony has been much dis- 
puted ; but there seems to be distinct evidence of 
three separate settlements, in 1107, 1113, and 1155 or 
thereabouts, and although numbers of the colonists 
perished in desperate and repeated struggles with 
the native chieftains, they are frequently mentioned 
by the Welsh chroniclers in later times. Giraldus 
Cambrensis speaks of them as " brave and doughty, 
hating and hated by the Welsh, well versed in 
commerce, clever woollen manufacturers, adventur- 
ers, ever on the look-out for the main chance, and 
willing in the pursuit of it to undergo fatigue 
and danger by sea and land ; in a word, excellent 
colonists." ^ 

All these settlements took place chiefly in the 
southern and more open and fertile part of Pem- 

*Laws, p. 115. 

148 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

brokeshire. In the north-east the hilly moorland 
region of Cemmaes was conquered indeed by the 
Normans, but not largely colonised; curiously 
enough, their dominion there seems to have been 
seldom disputed ; but matrimonial alliances soon 
turned them into Welshmen, and after a few gener- 
ations we find the lineal representative of the 
Norman conquestor bearing the very Kymric name 
of Jevan ap Owen. 

But in the south the results of the continual and 
savage contests were probably also rather unfavour- 
able to the colonists. Not that, after the first 
arrival of the Anglo-Flemings, peaceful admixture 
was very great, but that in warfare of that kind the 
more civilised people could suffer more heavily, 
their castles not being sufficiently numerous and 
strong to make up for the comparative want of 
natural strongholds in their more open country. 
Moreover, their territory was small and isolated, 
that of the Celtic speaking enemy comparatively 
large; and the effects of immigration are generally 
more notable in the smaller of two adjoining 
countries, for an obvious reason. After the estab- 
lishment of peace landholders with Welsh names 
begin to appear in the south of the country, and no 
doubt their presence implies that of dependents of 
their own race or nation. Meanwhile, the colonists, 
after the partial conquest of Ireland which they 
accomplished under Strongbow in the latter part of 
the twelfth century, were diminished by the swarms 
which they sent off to that country. There the 
people of Forth and Bargy, the two southernmost 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 149 

baronies of the shire of Wexford, who speak a 
curious old-English dialect, are doubtless in great 
part descended from those of " Little England 
beyond Wales" — a swarm from a young hive, a 
colony in the second degree. The line of division 
between the Saxon and the Keltic halves of Pem- 
brokeshire is still pretty sharply drawn, and has not 
varied far for centuries, though it is now beginning 
to recede. It runs, or did run not many years ago, 
from a point between Roch and Brawdy on the 
north-east side of St. Bride's Bay, in a curve convex 
to the north, to the most projecting point of the 
Caermarthenshire border, passing north of St. Bos- 
wells and Bletherston. South-east of this projection, 
and separated by it, three parishes in Narberth 
Hundred, Llandewi, Llanvalteg and Llampeter 
Velfry, are also Keltic. 

Mr. Laws instituted a census of the colours of 
school children's hair and eyes, and was successful 
in securing the co-operation of fifty-two school- 
masters, well distributed over the whole country. 
The number of children examined was 4,151, of 
whom 1,350 were in Welsh-speaking schools: the 
method employed was my own, the children being 
divided into fifteen sets, the eyes being noted as 
light, neutral or dark, and the hair as red, fair, 
brown or neutral, dark or black. 

This is the method which has been adopted by 
Topinard in his great census of the departments of 
France, but with the further improvement of certain 
patterns or standards indicating the shades which 
are to be characterised as neutral or medium in eyes. 

150 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

and brown, chestnut (chatain), or medium in hair. 
This plan of Topinard's no doubt mitigates the 
liability to eccentricities of the observer which is 
the great and not wholly avoidable fault of the 
procedure, and which I denote briefly as the personal 
equation of the observer. Another fault is this: 
though the colour of the eye does not change much 
with advancing years during childhood, the colour 
of the hair usually changes considerably. Thus red 
and yellow may become brown, and red sometimes 
quite a dark brown, dark brown shades may become 
blackish, and many browns take on a rather darker 
shade. It follows that statistics derived from child- 
ren cannot be usefully compared with those from 
adults, nor even those from infant schools with 
those from advanced classes. In the present case, 
however, the average age of the children probably 
did not vary much in the several schools. 

The results of the enquiry were not exactly what 
I had expected. Mr. Laws and I had both looked 
for figures indicating a comparatively large excess 
of dark hair in the northern half of the country. 
An excess indeed there was, but one of only 6 per 
cent, the proportion of dark hair being in the 
northern or Welsh half 327 per cent., in the southern 
or English one 26'6 per cent. The excess of black 
hair among the Welsh is indeed large, nearly double, 
but there is also a moderate excess of red and fair 
hair, with a great deficiency of medium shades, and 
a moderate one in dark eyes. As all these numerical 
relations more resemble the Irish than those of the 
Silurian, or south-eastern Welshmen, I am inclined 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 151 

to diagnose the presence in North Pembrokeshire of 
a very large Gaelic element; ^d it is noteworthy 
that Mr. Laws, like Bishop Basil Jones, had arrived 
at the same conclusion from totally different 
grounds, historical or philological. 

When we examine the figures for the six hundreds 
separately, some interesting details come out. 
Castlemartin, which includes the peninsula to the 
south of Milford Haven, though entirely English in 
speech, comes out with a small proportion of light 
hair. This is not really strange, however : the west 
country English, the near kinsmen of these colonists, 
are mainly of British origin, and dark-haired. The 
local names here are not so indicative of Scandi- 
navian or Flemish settlement as those in the Hundred 
of Roos, around Haverford-west. Accordingly Roos 
comes out with a large proportion of light and 
medium brown hair, but little dark, and very little 
black: the proportion of dark eyes is also rather 
small. With Roos we may advantageously compare 
Cemmaes (pronounced Kemmes), which occupies 
the north-eastern part of the county, and owing to 
its poor soil and rough elevated surface has, as 
before noted, been little disturbed by colonization. 
Cemmaes has 154 more of dark brown hair, in 100 
of all colours, than Roos ; it has four times as much 
of black hair, three less of fair, and 16 less of medium 
brown shades. The combinations of dark brown or 
black hair with blue, light grey or dark grey eyes 
are remarkably prevalent in all Gaelic countries, 
belonging perhaps to the ancient race of Cro- 
Magnon, but certainly to a stock long ago thoroughly 

152 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

incorporated with the Gaels. Of these combinations 
we have 27'4 per cent, in Cemmaes, and only 97 in 
Roos, or about one-third ; and of those including 
black hair 29 per 1000 in Cemmaes, and only 2 per 
1000 in Roos. 

Thus, on minute analysis, the present distribution 
of colour, though not very striking at first sight, is 
full of meaning : it accords well with the probable 
history, and gives us additional assurance of the 
potency of the Norse and Flemish, and of the Ibero- 
Gaelic or Irish element in Pembrokeshire, which 
local names and history suggest. 

In the Isle of Man the problems of anthropology 
may be said to be reduced to very simple forms. 
We know, in fact, nothing, or hardly anything, of 
the prehistoric anthropology of the island ; but a 
great deal of the later facts bearing on its race- 
history. The earliest population of which we are 
aware was evidently Gaelic in speech and in myth- 
ology, and with the exception of a doubtful and in 
any case transitory conquest by the Northumbrian 
Angles, it has scarcely ever been interfered with, 
except by being overlaid by successive strata of 
Norsemen, either pure, or more or less mixed, 
already, with Irish and Hebridean Gaels. The pres- 
sence of certain surnames, as Mr. A. W. Moore has 
shewn, indicates that there was a considerable 
immigration from Ireland in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, but it was rather Anglo-Irish or Ostman-Irish 
than purely Gaelic, and did not, probably, alter the 
race-proportions materially. 

I think it is not unlikely that at one time the 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 153 

Norse element preponderated, but that it fell back 
into a minority owing to its being drained away 
into the Norse colonies in Cumberland, Westmore- 
land and Dumfriesshire. Vigfusson and Savage, in 
their readings of the Manx Runic inscriptions, 
whose supposed date is somewhere about a.d. 1200, 
find 18 Norse names of men and 5 of women, 14 
Gaelic of men and 3 of women, — altogether 23 Norse 
to 17 Gaelic, 57 per cent, to 42 ; but the persons 
commemorated or mentioned were doubtless of the 
wealthier class. As Vigfusson and Savage say, " The 
speech, we believe, was all along bilingual. The 
masters would speak Norse : the law and all public 
transactions on the Thingwall and elsewhere would 
be in Norse; but the household servants would 
speak Gaelic — just as we find English and Gaelic 
within the same family in lona and the Hebrides at 
the present day. At the separation from Norway 
in the thirteenth century, the root was cut off from 
under the Norse tongue, and the Gaelic obtained ; 
just as under our own eyes the English is now 
supplanting the Manx Gaelic." 

The legal arrangements retained much of their 
Norse character, but the language, as has been just 
said, remained Gaelic with a little admixture of 
Norwegian words, and the place-names were in 
great majority Gaelic; while the surnames were 
mostly pure Gaelic, and the remainder Norse Gaelic- 
ized ; thus Kewley for Macaulay or Olafson, Corlett 
for MacThorliod, Qualtrough, as I suppose, for 
MacWalter or Waterson, Corkhill for MacCorkill, 
for MacThorketil or Thorkelson. 

154 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

The only Manx crania of any pretensions to 
antiquity which I could see or hear of, were two in 
the possession of Dr. Clague of Castletown ; they 
had been found in excavating foundations at 
Scarlett, and were probably mediaeval. They both 
showed something of the Gaelic type ; their indices 
of breadth were respectively 756 and 80*6. 

One would expect, judging from these data, and 
from the length of the period which has elapsed 
since any new element of consequence has been 
added to the population, to find in the modern 
Manx folk a tolerably homogeneous type, com- 
pounded from a Scandinavian and from (what I 
call) the Gaelic type, though leaning perhaps rather 
more towards the latter, and occasionally varying 
into pretty pure specimens of one or other of its 
elements. Now the Manx population answer pretty 
exactly to this expectation ; they are just what they 
ought to be, anthropologically. There is a good 
deal of likeness between them and the Cumberland 
folk, on the one side, and between them and the 
people of Lewis and Harris on the other. They are 
tall and stalwart, with oblong heads yielding an 
index of breadth of 77'6; in that and in other 
principal measurements their heads take a place 
between those of Norwegians and those of Scottish 
and Irish Gael, inclining however rather more 
towards the latter. The greatest difference from 
the former comes out in the greater length of the 
naso-inial arc, which is connected with a greater 
prominence of brows and of occiput, as well as with 
an apparently lower position of the inion. The 

Spain, Italy, and the British Isles. 155 

breadth and flatness of the cheekbones, flatness 
rather than prominence, is decidedly Norwegian 
rather than Gaelic. The face is usually long, and 
either scutiform or oval ; the former is the outline 
most prevalent among the Scandinavians, the latter 
among the Scottish Highlanders and Western Irish. 
The nose is almost always of good length ; in out- 
line it is oftener straight, less often sinuous than 
among the Highlanders and Irish. The influence 
of the Norwegian cross is shewn also in the colour 
of the hair. Red hair is not frequent nor very 
bright ; fair and light brown hair are very common ; 
and the index of nigrescence is decidedly lower 
than in most parts of the Highlands or of Ireland. 
The distribution and combinations of colour have 
more resemblance to those found in some other 
Scandio-Gaelic districts than to most others in my 
schedules; such districts are Wexford, Waterford^ 
some of the islands of the coast of Argyle, and 
perhaps the Lewis. But the exact proportions of 
hair-colour, together with the great frequency of 
neutral eyes, are not produced anywhere else. Blue 
eyes are less common, I think, than grey; and dark 
shades of grey, varying towards green and brown, 
are frequent. What are called "black" eyes are 
rare. The hair is pretty copious, straight or wavy, 
seldom strongly curled or very brightly coloured. 
I measured thirty-one heads, all of which belonged 
to people of long local descent. If called upon to 
classify them, I should say that out of the thirty- 
one, one was distinctly Turanian in type, one be- 
longed to the British bronze race, one was pretty 

156 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

purely Iberian, and one anomalous ; that one was 
pretty purely Teutonic (the Grave-row type of Ecker, 
the Hohberg, or between the Hohberg and the 
Belair, of His and Rutimeyer, the Germanic of Von 
Holder), and that three more were very nearly so, 
while at least four presented decided Gaelic types ; 
and that the remaining nineteen were what I have 
called Scandio-gaelic. Thus amalgamation of the 
two principal constituent elements would seem to 
have gone so far that nearly two-thirds of the popu- 
lation, if I may judge by my specimens, belong to a 
newly compounded Manx type, while the remainder 
are to be considered as reversions, or as belonging 
to the original elements, which have hitherto 
resisted amalgamation. The Turanian and two of 
Gaels belonged to the secluded southern hamlet of 
Craignish, while three of the Teutons or Norsemen 
were born in the north of the island. I have little 
doubt that Craignish was a habitation of thralls, 
and my Turanian may be the descendant of a 
captive, brought from possibly, Lapland or the 
White Sea. 

Mr. A. W. Moore, whose loss the island has had 
to deplore, produced among other papers one 
grounded on my figures and on the local nomen- 
clature, in which he demonstrated that small as is 
the island the race type has not become homo- 
geneous everywhere, but that the Scandinavian 
element is still more potent in the neighbourhood 
of the easiest landing-places, and less so in the 
rougher or more remote parishes, the " back blocks," 
as an American might call them. 



Considerations of special districts, such as Berwickshire, an Anglian, 
and Ballachiilish, a Gaelic locality — Difficult and doubtful 
points in British ethnology — Possible effects of urban life — 
Growth and decline of races and types, and their probable 


TN considering the mediaeval history of Scotland, 
^ one meets with mysteries ethnological as well 
as political. I had the advantage of coming after 
Professor Rhys in this Chair, and I have learned 
much from him ; but nevertheless, it remains a 
mystery to me how the Pictish language came to 
disappear. That it was a Keltic dialect, but with 
Iberian elements, I entertain little doubt ; that the 
language of the majority often gives place to that of 
the minority, when the latter has some decided 
advantage, religious, social, or political, over the 
former, I am well aware ; but here it is apparently a 
question of two races of barbarians on something 
like the same level, so far as we can see. In fact 
one would be inclined to say that the Brythonic 
language of Strathclyde ought to have had the best 
chance of the three, on the score of civilization. I 

158 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

can only suppose that the true Scots were really, 
what some of the early Irish writings and traditions 
portray them, a very highly gifted race, psychically 
as well as physically, and that this superiority told 
in their favour in the linguistic struggle, in spite of 
the difficulties interposed by a rugged and thinly 
peopled country, vexed by continual wars and intes- 
tine dissensions. 

It is the habit of a decaying language to hide 
itself, as it were, in nooks and corners, while the 
advancing tide of the victorious tongue sweeps 
round it ; or to continue to exist among the 
commonality, while the upper and more energetic 
classes, those who stir and push and make history, 
show no sign of its existence. Thus Chaucer's 
Skipper of Dartmouth speaks English like the rest 
of his company; one would never imagine from 
any hint given by Chaucer, that Cornish was spoken 
in South Devon for two centuries afterwards. 

Still, I was surprised when Dr. Christison pointed 
out to me the passage in Burt's Letters, in which he 
says that he had been informed that, before the 
Union, Irish {i.e., Gaelic) had been the language of 
Fife ; and that after the Union it became one con- 
dition of the indenture, when a youth from Fife 
was to be bound on the Edinburgh side of the 
water, that the apprentice should be taught "the 
English tongue." But Jamieson, in a note to the 
fifth edition of Burt, says there is no reason to 
suppose that in Fife any Keltic dialect had been 
used, during the last five centuries, that would have 
been intelligible to an Irishman. That Gaelic 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 159 

lingered long behind the Ochills, in Strathallan, I 
could well believe: the population there is physi- 
cally much more Gaelic ; and in the thirteenth 
century, since which there have been no great 
changes of population, the personal names in a 
perambulation of Wester Fedale, near Auchterarder, 
were almost all Gaelic. But with regard to Fife, I 
am disposed to think Burt was hoaxed, or that he 
misunderstood his informants. 

The proof, could it be had, that Gaelic had 
lingered long in a particular locality would by no 
means show that the proportion of Gaelic blood 
there is particularly large. I have said that the 
Strathallan people were largely pre- Saxon. They 
are very generally dark haired, and their features 
correspond to their colour: yet their forefathers 
have spoken English for generations, though with a 
Gaelic accent. The people of Keith and Huntly 
speak English; but dark colours prevail among 
them, which is not the case in the lower ground of 
Moray on the one side, or of Aberdeenshire on the 
other; and I believe them to be mainly of Pictish 
extraction. The people of the Ness, in the north of 
the Long Island, have spoken Gaelic from time 
immemorial; but those who have seen them (I 
regret that I have not) with one consent declare 
them to be pure Norsemen ; and I can testify that 
even south of them, at Stornoway, the strength of 
the Scandinavian types is remarkable. Whether 
Norse was ever the language of the commonality in 
the Hebrides is very doubtful. Captain Thomas 
thought it was. Quoting Vigfusson, he tells us that 

160 The A nthropological History of Europe. 

the poems of Orm of Barra formed part of the 
entertainment at a banquet in Iceland, 1120. The 
most I should infer would be that the islanders 
were bilingual in the same way in which England 
was bilingual in the twelfth century, or in which 
Wales and the Highlands are bilingual to-day, while 
we read and admire the poems of the Welshman 
William Morris. 

Some of those migrations which have most effect 
on physical type do not necessarily affect the 
language: this may be the case where they are 
gradual and long persistent, so that the speakers of 
the original tongue are able to assimilate successive 
generations of new-comers. 

In attempting to analyse anthropologically the 
population of Scotland, one is met with a difficulty 
common to several countries in Western Europe — 
England, Ireland, Spain, Portugal, Sardinia, Sicily. 
Almost all the elements are long-headed, and there- 
fore our readiest test, except that of colour, almost 
fails us. It is the one of which I have made most 
use in these lectures, as being the most accessible, 
and as having been so much developed as to yield 
an enormous mass of data; but, as will have been 
gathered, I think its special importance has been a 
little exaggerated. A brachykephalic — short-head- 
ed — element no doubt entered Scotland during the 
period of bronze; and, as I have already stated, I 
think it probable that a Mongoloid race may have 
been amongst the earliest occupants of the country; 
but neither of them is largely represented nowadays, 
at least not in the material I have collected. The 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 161 

former of these should be found especially in the 
Brythonic, the latter in the Pictish districts. Med- 
iaeval skulls are generally neglected, to the detriment 
of ethnological history. But Sir Daniel Wilson 
measured 12, mostly from Edinburgh, and found a 
breadth-index of 786, which is rather high for these 
islands. The number is too small to allow for any 
confident deduction, but the width is greater, and 
most of the other measurements less, than in the 
series of what he calls Keltic (let us read Gaelic) 
skulls, with which he compares them. Of these 
latter, by the way, several are from lona,^ and it 
may be worth while to note again how often finely 
developed skulls are discovered in the graveyards 
of old monasteries, and how likely seems Galton's 
conjecture, that progress was arrested in the Middle 
Ages, because the celibacy of the clergy brought 
about the extinction of the best strains of blood. 

There are not so many modern Scottish crania 
in collections as one could wish. Those that were 
available were, I imagine, almost all made use of by 
Principal Sir William Turner in his most valuable 
Contribution to the Craniology of the People of 
Scotland, which is likely to remain the standard 
work on the subject. It includes descriptions of 
176, for the most part, tolerably perfect crania, most 
of which may be said to be modern, though some 
are mediaeval. The most interesting point brought 
out by Sir William is the frequent occurrence 
of brachykephaly among the upper or educated 

^ Average index of 5, 76*8. 

162 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

classes, to which most of his material probably 
belonged. This applies especially to Fife, to East 
Lothian, and to other parts of the Eastern Low- 
lands, but not to the West of Scotland. Thus :— 



Cranial Index. 

N. E. Lowlands, ... 



E. Lothian, 









Renfrewshire, ... 



Highlands and Isles, 



But it may serve our purpose to divide the Mid- 
lothian skulls into two categories, 32 from the 
towns of Edinburgh and Leith would yield a 
breadth-index of 78'4, while 14 from a coast village 
(not further described) would give 761, 13 from 
rural districts, 751, and the whole 27 extraurban 
skulls, 75*6, not much beyond the limit of pure 

The elaborate investigation of the asylum popu- 
lation of Scotland, which we owe to Mr. Tocher, 
may help us in the appreciation of these facts, 
though of course there may be a little hazard in 
extending an argument or a conclusion from the 
insane to the sane. Among the particulars obtained 
by Mr. Tocher was the kephalic index for all the 
individuals observed, and of course the mean there- 
of for each district asylum. He found an index of 
78, or higher, in the whole north and north-east 
beyond the Tay and the Grampians, one below 77 
in Argyll, and intermediate ones in the remainder 
of Scotland, including Fife and the Lothians. 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 163 

I have extracted from Mr. Tocher's figures (cor- 
rected as usual for the skulP) the proportions of 
true brachykephali (80 or more), in several of the 
asylums. They run as follows: — 

Argyll, ... 

... 1-6 


. 3-6 

Fife, ... 

... 4-5 


. 4-8 

E. Lothian, 

... 4-9 


. 51 


.. 5-35 


. 5-9 


.. 6-5 


. 72 


.. 711 

Moray, ... 

. 11-2 

Banff, ... 

.. 12- 

Montrose, &c., 


and seem to exhibit his results in a very striking 
form, and to accord generally with Sir William 
Turner — but not in the details relating to Fife and 
East Lothian, nor to the distinction between Edin- 
burgh and its rural surroundings. 

Sir William attributes most of the material in 
question to the upper or educated classes, and 
though chiefly modern, it is contemporary. 

Was there perchance anything in the environ- 
ment, say in the eighteenth century or thereabout, 
to affect the forms ? It is not likely. Deformations 
may be and are practised by nurses and mid wives 
which escape the notice of the scientific observer; 
thus, in mid-Germany, the cradleboard is responsible 
for much of the brachykephaly. But there is no 

^That is, I have subtracted 2 degrees in every case. In my own 
opinion, however, this is too much in the case of brachykephali ; so 
that I may have understated the proportion of short-heads. Mr. 
Tocher's figures seem to confirm Sir WiUiam Turner's remark that in 
Scotland the short have generally smaller capacities than the long- 

164 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

trace of anything of that sort in the beautifully 
figured crania in Sir William Turner's memoir. 
There are other factors in the question which are 
just conceivable, but that is all. 

I have a few observations of my own, or under- 
taken at my instigation by the late Mr. Hector 
Maclean, which do not yield much support to the 
idea that Scottish heads are growing wider. I will 
give them as corrected for comparison with the dry 
skull, as mentioned in the note on the preceding 

88 Isla men, by Hector Maclean, - 77'3 

28 Colonsay, do. do., - 75'2 

18 Eyemouth and Burnmouth, J. B., 74'7 

12 Berwickshire, inland, J. B., - - 75'9 

55 Highlanders, various, J. B., - - 74'2 

40 Educated Scotchmen, J. B., - - 75*3 

20 Other do. do., J. B., - - 75*5 
22 Scotchmen of superior intellectual 

distinction, .... 75'44 

50 Others, mostly upper class, - - 75'67 

The relative breadth, it will be observed, is small, 
smaller than in almost any part of the continent of 
Europe. On the other hand, the absolute length is 
great, greater indeed than I have found anywhere 
else, except in Hanover and East Friesland, and it is 
this which makes the breadth appear small: the 
circumference again is large in all, though inferior 
to that of the Hanoverians. There are certain 
differences between the four classes of Scotchmen : 
thus the Berwickshire peasants seem to have slightly 

Scotland^ with General Conclusions. 165 

smaller heads than the fishermen (the contrary is 
said to be the case further north on the east coast) : 
the Berwickshire fishermen have slightly less pro- 
minent brows, their heads are a trifle more lofty, 
the frontal region rather more developed, and the 
whole base of the brain rather broader than in the 
Highlanders. The educated Scotchmen, who were 
nowise selected, except for hereditary or personal 
intellectual distinction, and who came from all 
parts of the country, including the Highlands, agreed 
more with the Berwickshire fishermen in their pro- 
portions, but their foreheads are generally broader 
and their heads loftier. 

In the 22 of intellectual distinction these differ- 
ences were generally more marked, and the average 
size of the heads was distinctly greater; but it will 
be observed that the index of breadth is much the 

Here I must break off for a while to speak of the 
extensive and laborious contributions to our know- 
ledge of human coloration in Scotland which we 
owe to Messrs. John Gray and Tocher, and which 
they have made since these lectures were delivered. 
They cannot, unfortunately, be very profitably 
compared with my own contribution to Scottish 
ethnology, as they were made fifty years later, 
during which period it is quite possible that even 
changes of type may have resulted from the en- 
bonization of the population and from other social 
changes. Moreover my work was concerned with 
adults and with certain localities selected indeed 
but somewhat casually so, while theirs had to do 

166 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

with children, extended to the whole of Scotland, 
with small exceptions, and was carried on systemati- 
cally and officially. One point of superiority 
however remains to me : all my observations were 
made with my own eyes, so that the troublesome 
personal equation was eliminated, and I suspect 
that many of the Scottish schoolmasters were dis- 
posed to see a good deal of dark hair, as it is apt to 
be the case among a blond people. 

On the whole Messrs. Gray and Tocher's facts 
corroborate my conjectures, though not always in 
particular localities. They show a fair race-type on 
the Borders, a dark-haired and light-eyed one in 
the Gaelic-speaking west and north-west, and among 
the Picts of Galloway, and a comparative absence 
of dark and black hair among the eastern Low- 
landers, within reach of colonization from the 
continental Teutons. Mr. Gray is disposed to think 
the characteristics of these last may represent to a 
notable extent those of the Picts. Some peculiarities 
in dialect, such as the use of F for WH, favour this 
view ; but to me the higher kephalic index and the 
general aspect of the people, as well as the prevailing 
surnames, seem to indicate the peaceful infiltration 
of Teutonic settlers from the Continent, with just a 
sufficient leaven of Anglo-Saxons to make their 
language predominant. Galloway was not always 
under Pictish rule during the dark ages: there was 
a notable period of Anglian domination ; but the 
Picts survived there eo nomine, longer than any- 
where else, being notoriously conspicuous at the 
battle of the Standard ; and what little evidence we 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 167 

can get from Sir William Turner ^ or elsewhere 
leads one to think that a low kephalic index prevails 
among their descendants. 

To return ; in colour, which I consider very 
important as a race-test, the difference between 
Eyemouth and Ballachulish is very great, almost as 
great, perhaps, as between any two districts in the 
country. The proportions of light and of dark eyes 
are not very different, it is true; but the neutral 
eyes are generally light hazel or hazel-grey in Eye- 
mouth, but dark grey is Ballachulish. Black hair is 
quite rare at Eyemouth, and among the Berwick- 
shire peasants of pure breed it hardly ever occurs ; 
but at Ballachulish it is in the proportion of 10 per 
cent., and often occurs with blue or dark grey eyes. 
Altogether the hair is more coloured there, more 
pigmented; thus the blond hair (which is not 
uncommon at Ballachulish, notwithstanding the 
pronounced tendency to blackness), is more apt to 
be yellow, while in Berwickshire it often tends to a 
flaxen hue, which means deficiency in colouring 
matter. How far this has to do with differences in 
the atmospheric moisture, or how far it is due to 
peculiarities fixed in the race, may be questioned : 
on the whole it seems probable that red and yellow 
pigment were originally developed copiously in a 
moist atmosphere, but that the tendency to their 
production is now completely fixed. 

The Berwickshire people are mainly Anglian by 
race : it is probable that the British inhabitants were 

^ He figures a distinctly Gaelic type of skull. 

168 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

pretty completely expelled at the time of the 
Anglian conquest. Some Danish and Norse blood 
was introduced under Malcolm Ceanmohr — later 
changes have not been great, though of course there 
has been a slow infiltration of the general Scottish 
population. I will give you an example of such 
immigration from a tombstone in Foulden church- 
yard, on which I have more than once enacted " Old 
Mortality." " Here lieth ane honourable man, 
George Ramsay in Foulden Bastel. . . . 

" Fife fostering peace me bred 
From thence the Merse me called. 
The Merse to Mars his lawys led. 
To bide his battles bauld. 
Wearied with toil, and sore opprest. 
Death gave to Mars the foil. 
And now I have more quiet rest 
Than in my native soil. 
Fife, Forth, Mars, Mort, these fatal four 
All hale my life hath driven o'er." 

There is every agency present in Berwickshire 
which might be expected to develop or maintain a 
fine type of man. The original stock was tall, 
handsome, and vigorous; subsequent crosses have 
been made by energetic immigrants ; natural selec- 
tion may have assisted during centuries of border 
warfare ; there are no manufactories in the district, 
or hardly any ; finally, the soil is rich and fertile, if 
that has anything to do with it; and a somewhat 
harsh and cold climate probably weeds out weakly 
people. Accordingly the men of the Merse are 
among the finest in Britain. Probably the average 
stature is about 5 feet 9 inches (1752 millimeters); 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 169 

the fishermen are not so tall as the peasantry, but 
25 of the latter, of pure local descent, who were 
measured and weighed by Dr. Charles Stewart of 
Chirnside, yielded the remarkable average of 5 feet 
lOi inches in stature, and 199 pounds in weight.^ 
Here the weight exceeds, though the stature falls 
short of, the huge proportions of the men of Balma- 
clellan in Upper Galloway, who as yet, I believe, 
hold the record as to stature among all tested 
communities in Europe. The majority of the Merse 
men have straight profiles, long heads and faces, 
prominent occiputs, cheekbones and brows not 
conspicuous, noses nearly straight, fair complexion, 
blue or grey eyes, and lightish brown hair. 

Of the Ballachulish people it would be more 
difficult to give a good description. They are much 
less homogeneous in form and colour. Though 
there has been little immigration for the last few 
centuries, except of Highlanders, there are various 
traditions of old dealings with the Norwegians. 
The Macdonalds of Glencoe had been islesmen, and 
a sept called Henderson are said to have preceded 
them. On the whole, however, the probable ele- 
ments of importance are Iberian (Pictish.?) and 
Scotic (shall we say Keltiberian or Galato-Iberian ?): 
there is little sign of more primitive races. A long- 
headed dark race has been crossed by a long-headed 
fair one, and the latter has been a little reinforced 
by the Norsemen ; a new type has been established, 
but imperfectly, and reversions are frequent. The 
moral character, the speech and manners, more than 

^ 86 millimeters and about 84 kilogrammes, naked weight. 


170 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

the complexion, or the characteristic forms of the 
level brows and of the lower jaw, make me inclined 
to think that the Iberian preponderates over the 
Gael and the Goth. 

For physical descriptions of the Highlander I 
must refer to the papers Sir Arthur Mitchell, 
Captain Thomas, and Mr. Hector Maclean of Bally- 
grant. All had paid much attention to the subject, 
and their conclusions do not differ much. All agree 
as to the importance of the Iberian, or as some call 
it, Spanish element. As to a Finnish one they are 
less clear, but all acknowledge it to some extent. I 
believe it to be rather considerable in Scotland ; it 
may possibly have been brought in by the Nor- 
wegians, and this is quite likely as regards the dark, 
flat-faced, almond-eyed folk who occur in Shetland 
and about Barvas in the Lewis ; but its general dis- 
tribution in Scotland, and its frequent occurrence 
in Wales, make me think it of far older date in 
Britain than the Norse invasions. 

The Brythonic element is not, I think, at all 
strong or conspicuous in the Western Highlands, 
though it may be in Perthshire. The parts of Scot- 
land in which one would look for it with most 
confidence are those where the Strathclyde- Welsh- 
men longest retained their power, the districts 
adjoining the long range of hills and moorlands 
that runs from the heads of the Clyde and the 
Annan along the west of Lanarkshire into Renfrew- 
shire. These would include Upper Nithsdale, Upper 
Galloway, Kyle, perhaps also Cunningham and 
Renfrewshire; but of these last I have no personal 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. Ill 

knowledge. What seems most notable in the people 
thereabout, are the very tall stature and the pre- 
valence on the whole of dark hair. The schedule 
from the parish of Balmaclellan, to which I referred 
just now, which was published in my work on 
Stature and Bulk, and which I owed to Sir Arthur 
Mitchell and the Reverend George Murray, ex- 
hibited both these characteristics in a high degree.^ 
I regret that I cannot say anything about the head- 
form, which, if known, might enable one to speak 
more confidently of their racial origin. But I 
incline to think there is in them a large element of 
the same kind that we usually find in round barrows 
and with bronze objects — the race that was once 
dominant over the greater part of the British Isles, 
and whose tall stature and bony angular features 
are here reproduced. I do not know how long the 
Brythonic language lingered hereabout, but there is 
a little testimony to its long continuance which may 
never have struck you, though it occurs in a well- 
known Scotch ballad. 

" An' they hae had him to the wan water, 
For a' men call it Clyde." 

Why did they call it Clyde ? Clyde in Welsh, is 
pale grey. Lloyd, the personal name so common in 
Wales, means "grey." Evidently the man who 
composed that pathetic ballad knew the Kymric 
tongue, or how should he have known that Clyde 
meant the " wan " water, the pale grey water. 

' The average stature of the 75 men measured was 5 feet 10"4-6 inches, 
or 1790 millimeters ; but 14 who had black hair attained an average of 
1812 millimeters. 

172 The Anthropological History of Europe. 


We have now traced down the history of Europe, 
so far as it can be done within a very limited space, 
from the earliest known vestiges of man down to 
the present day; and in all its principal divisions. 
We have seen that while the craniological record of 
prehistoric ages is very insufficient, and for large 
portions of Europe non-existent, such evidence as 
we yet possess goes to shew that the dolichokephalic 
was in the earliest ages the prevailing, and perhaps 
the only type of man ; but that there were possibly 
two varieties of it. Its extreme forms seem to have 
been connected with early ossification of the sutures. 

That brachykephali do, however, appear in the 
quaternary period, sometimes accompanying long- 
heads, sometimes separately. Where they occur 
conjunctively they do not give one the impression 
of being mere aberrations or of pathological origin, 
as from rickets or hydrokephalus : and in the latter 
part of the quaternary period they may be provision- 
ally accepted as at least tribal types. 

In the neolithic period we find them constituting 
in France an important and aggressive race: they 
mix with and overpower the long-headed type: 
they appear in the Swiss pile-villages and about the 
Alps, and may be conjectured to have existed in mass 
much further east ; but of this there is little or no 
positive evidence until later, in the early iron age, 
though in the age of bronze they conquered most part 
of the British Isles ; and though there is some reason 
to think that at a very early period a broad-headed 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 173 

race was represented in Scandinavia. As the north 
becomes peopled, the vigorous race which fills it 
sends off swarms to the south and south-east ; and 
this progress continues until it is temporarily 
arrested by the consolidation of the Roman empire. 
After the Roman dominion has passed away, we 
find that the northern longheads push southwards 
at the expense of the brachykephals, whom, how- 
ever, they rather overlie than press backwards. 
Soon, however, the opposite movement begins anew, 
and is supported to some extent by the invasions of 
the Turanian type from Asia, but chiefly by the 
great spread of the Slavonic peoples, at the expense 
of the long-headed Germans and of the Ugrian 
tribes, who were at most of mixed type. The 
Illyrian race has meanwhile been invading the area 
of the Mediterranean longheads, and the Kelts may 
have done the same to a less extent. 

The next result is that we have now three cranio- 
metrical, if not racial, areas in Europe, without 
counting the Lapps and Finns as a second brachy- 
kephalic mass, in which case we shall have four 
such areas. Roughly speaking, the broadheads 
occupy most of the mountain regions of Europe, 
with the adjacent territories, to wit, the central hills 
of Bretagne, the Cevennes, the Vosges, the Ardennes, 
the Jura, both Swiss and German, the Alps in their 
whole extent, the Pindus, and probably the whole 
Carpathian system with its western prolongations : 
also the plains of Poland and Southern and Central 
Russia, where the boundary to the north becomes 
blurred and indistinct. 

174 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

The northern or blond long-heads occupy the 
regions north of those already mentioned, except 
the area of the Lapps, the Quaens, and the Karelian 
and Tavastian Finns, who are all brachykephalic, 
the first remarkably so. The Tavastians at least, 
though broad-headed, are a blond people. There 
is a brachykephalic spot on the south-west coast of 
Norway, which may be primitive, and another on 
the isles of the Scheldt and Meuse. The Southern 
or Mediterranean longheads, including the Pyr- 
enees and all to the south of them, part of Western 
France, the coast of Liguria, apparently, Corsica, 
Sardinia, Sicily and Southern Italy. To these may 
be added parts of Greece and of the Greek islands, 
and of Bulgaria ; but the connection of blood is 
doubtful in the former case, and non-existent in the 
second, the dolichokephalic elements in Bulgaria 
being Ugrian, or possibly in part Thracian. 

Now has this great extension of the brachyke- 
phalic area been wholly due to conquest or col- 
onization ? or to the different moral qualities or 
greater fertility or hardihood of the breed? or to 
any influences tending to actually change the type, 
which might be intrinsic (elevating or civilizing) or 
extrinsic, such as the hypothetical influence of 
mountain habitation might be, according to Ranke.'* 
There is a collateral problem involved with this, 
that of the supposed increasing prevalence of dark 
hair in Europe, particularly in areas formerly occu- 
pied by blonds, and the causes of it, if the supposition 
be correct. For there is no doubt that on the whole, 
in the northern and central latitudes of Europe, the 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 175 

longhead and the blond coloration, the broadhead 
and brunette coloration, go together. This is the 
rule, but exceptions are very numerous and exten- 
sive : thus in the island of Islay and in the west of 
England, Mr. Maclean and I have found the rule to 
be reversed.^ 

With respect to stature, the rule is still more 
liable to exception. The blond dolichoid race, as a 
race, is much taller than the Slavokeltic one; and 
the latter is thicker of make and heavier in pro- 
portion, but that is almost all that can be said with 
confidence. The bronze race of brachykephals in 
England was remarkably tall, and the tallest men in 
Britain are found in a comparatively dark-haired 

To return to the problems stated. There is much 
more evidence which could be brought to bear on 
them than I have been able to put before you in 
these lectures. I think I just mentioned the in- 
crease of size in the heads of Parisians, a change 
not accompanied apparently by any increase in 
maximum breadth, but depending purely on an 
enlargement of the frontal lobe. Even this may be 
due simply to a gradual process of selection; the 
cleverer people in all ranks, that is, those with 
frontal lobes developed beyond the average, having 
been attracted to the centre of progress and the 
goal of ambition, in larger number than their 

^ It is fair to note that in Western Britain we have to deal with 
remains of the southern, or dark, as well as of the northern or fair 

176 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

The extraordinary change which has apparently 
taken place in southern Germany, and of which I 
gave some details when speaking of that country, 
admits of several partial explanations, no one of 
which, however, is per se satisfactory. Thus the 
general exclusion of the serfs from the burying- 
grounds of their masters, in the days of grave-row 
interment, must be allowed ; but it is strange that 
it would seem to have continued even after the 
introduction and prevalence of Christianity. 

Von Holder lays great stress on the wars of the 
old Swabians and Bavarians with the Slavs, Avars 
and Magyars, to the east of them, and on the vast 
numbers of prisoners taken at these wars, whom he 
believes to have settled on the lands of their captors. 
Moreover, while land was more abundant than 
hands to till it, and while agriculture was, more or 
less, despised as an occupation by warriors, fugitive 
or converted foreigners were placed by nobles and 
churchmen on their domains. There is clear evi- 
dence of this having taken place in Thuringia- It 
would be strange, perhaps, if the descendants of the 
captive serfs should be found to have outstripped 
those of the captors and now to outnumber them. 
But it would be by no means impossible. The 
negro population constitutes the majority in most 
parts of the West Indies, and bids fair to crowd out 
the other races there ; yet it was introduced in the 
same way; it is the progeny of foreign captives 
brought in to till the soil for a dominant race or 

With regard to colour, the question of its change- 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 177 

ability is much increased in difficulty by the fact 
that the blond complexion has throughout all 
historical time, and in most parts of Europe, been 
the one most admired, while the red, the brown, 
and the black, though they have all had their local 
seasons of favour or fashion, have on the whole 
been the less thought of and less spoken of, especially 
by the poets, from Homer downwards. The 
inferences to be drawn from the mention of a par- 
ticular complexion are not always clear. If it were 
universal, it would probably never be mentioned. 
Even if very common, it would probably not be 
extolled, one would think; yet the Chinese call 
themselves " the black-haired nation," and the Brah- 
mins would marry only black-haired women, when 
other colours were rare ; and Souvestre says, reddish 
hair is disliked among the Bretons. But the rule is, 
perhaps, that the uncommon is prized as well as 

" Beautiful exceedingly. 
Like a ladye from a far countrie/' 

says Coleridge of Christobel. 

Good observers have said that all the Oriental 
Jews are red-haired,^ whereas it is only a few of 
them who are so. Some will tell you that most 
Scotch people are red-haired. The Chinese say we 
Britons are all so. The French in general think the 
French of the north are blond ; we, being ourselves 
very largely fair, think the northern French dark. 

^ Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, for example. 

178 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

Instances of this kind might be multiplied. Again, 
a favoured colour is imitated. Perhaps the Romans, 
when describing their northern neighbours, ought 
more often to have said " rutilatae," " raddled," 
instead of " rutilae," " red." The blond locks that 
the great Venetian limners painted, were, we know, 
decolorised by art, like those of some contemporary 
damsels. On the whole, then, I distrust or discount 
much of what old writers said about the fair or red 
hair of the ancient inhabitants of Europe. Still, 
there is some pretty strong evidence of change. 
Such is that derivable from the colour statistics of 
Virchow and G. Mayr, and from my own, as to the 
greater proportion of dark eyes and hair in cities. 

From Virchow we have the proportion borne by 
brown-haired children to the blond-haired, and that 
of brown-eyed children to the blue-eyed, for 33 
cities of Germany, with the surrounding or neigh- 
bouring rural districts in every case available for 
comparison. Of these 33, in one the citizens are 
distinctly the lighter in both hair and eyes. This 
is Metz, and the phenomena are doubtless due to the 
recent addition of a large Germanic and compara- 
tively blond element to the population of the city, 
while the rural population remains unchanged. 
Seven more cities show no considerable excess in 
either way over the country people, or an excess in 
one respect and a deficiency in the other. These 
are Wiesbaden (which has none of the unfavourable 
characteristics of a city), Ezberfeld, Crefeld and 
Barmen, which are quite modern towns of mush- 
room growth, where no new influences have had 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 179 

time to work ; Bradenburg, Strasburg, and Halle, a 
small place. In the remaining 25, both eyes and 
hair are decidedly darker than in the surrounding 
country. Of these, in 5, viz., Potsdam, Erfurt, Trier, 
Aachen, and Stuttgard, the hair is more affected 
than the eyes; in two, Liegnitz and Dusseldolf, 
both are equally affected ; and in the remaining 18 
the eyes are proportionally more darkened than the 
hair, in comparison with the surrounding rural 

The difference is most striking in the north-east, 
in Prussia proper : thus in Elbing the proportion of 
brown eyes to blue is in the city 74 to 100, in the 
surrounding country 31 only, a difference consider- 
ably more than double : the darkness of the hair is 
as 34 to 24. In the west, and still more in the south, 
where the rural population is darker, the phenom- 
enon is less conspicuous. In Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
a very ancient city, it comes out strongly. There 
the figures stand thus : — 

To 100 Blond-haired. To 100 Blue-Eyed. 
Brown-haired. Brown-Eyed. 

Frankfort City, - - 51 152 

Nassau Province, - 38 82 

In Bavaria, 34 cities and towns, in 7 out of 8 
provinces, are separated from the rural districts: 
many of these are quite small places. In 5 of these 
provinces the town scholars have more often dark 
hair than the country scholars; in Upper Bavaria 
the numbers are equal; in Lower Bavaria the 
citizen scholars come out fairest. In every one of 
the 7 provinces the citizen scholars have a larger 

180 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

proportion of dark eyes. Curiously, they have not 
more of black hair, though of brown hair as com- 
pared with blond the excess is considerable. The 
figures are : — 

Blond Hair. Brown. Black. 

Cities, - . - 49 47 4 

Rural districts, - - 55 40 5 

Light Eyes. Dark Eyes. 

Cities, - ... 63 37 

Rural districts, - - - 67 33 

Here in Bavaria, as in Germany generally, the 
difference seems to disappear where the rural popu- 
lation is darkest. Lower Bavaria has the darkest 
people in all Germany. 

Now let us compare our own country. 

I have three sets of statistics which are relevant : 
two of my own observation, the other deduced from 
the military notices in the Hue and Cry relating to 
deserters, whose birthplaces are given. The same 
is the case in my own schedules from the West of 
England, but not in my other and larger report, 
which is therefore of much less value. I have 
framed an index system for the Hue and Cry 
statistics, representing greater depth of colour by 
an increasing figure, and these are the results for 
hair : — 


London, 7'3 Middlesex, Kent, Surrey, Essex, - - 3*2 

Brighton, 8* Sussex, ------- 3- 

Bristol, 14* Somerset and Gloucestershire, - - - 8*7 

Birmingham, 10*5 Warwickshire, Worcestershire, Staffordshire, 7* 

Newcastle, 8"5 Northumberland, ----- 4-7 

Edinburgh, 7'4 Lothians (minus), ----- 4-3 

Glasgow, 13-7 All Scotland, ------ 3-1 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 181 

There is no exception here; but the eyes, which 
are not very carefully noted, seem to be much the 
same in town and country. In my own statistics 
for Great Britain, I am able in about 25 instances to 
separate town and country : in all these the hair of 
the inhabitants of cities was the darker, except (in 
England) in Shrewsbury, Hereford, Gloucester and 
Truro (all, you will observe, situated on the Welsh 
border or in Cornwall, where the general population 
is dark-haired), and in Scotland, in Aberdeen and 
Arbroath. I have not worked out the figures for 
the eyes ; but in my schedule of natives of the West 
of England I have done so, with the result that in 
the larger towns dark eyes prevail. I have no doubt 
that this phenomenon, the greater darkness of both 
hair and eyes in citizens than in country-folk, is 
largely due to the perpetual immigration of dark- 
complexioned foreigners. In our own case, these are 
Frenchmen, Italians, converted Jews (who melt 
away into the general population), and Welshmen, 
and so-called Black Kelts, from the remote west of 
these islands. In the case of Germany, they come 
from France, from Italy, from the same Jewish 
source, and from Bohemia and neighbouring parts. 
But I doubt whether this, though a good explana- 
tion so far as it goes, is a sufficient one ; and I am 
strongly disposed to see in the matter a case of 
natural selection, the blond children being, in my 
opinion, already expressed, often more difficult 
to rear amid the many unfavourable influences 
that accompany city life, while the blond adults, 
being of a more restless and adventurous tem- 

182 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

perament, are more disposed to wander and to 

Since the above was written, Dr. Shrubsall has 
proved that blond children in towns suffer more 
from rheumatism and throat affections than those 
of dark complexion, whose special weak points are 
not so liable to develop until comparatively late in 
life, and who, therefore, have a better chance of 
surviving to reproduce their species. 

In fine, we have fairly satisfactory proof that 
under ordinary circumstances the physical charac- 
teristics of well-defined races of men, such as form, 
colour, and even size, are absolutely permanent; and 
that when we wish to find an explanation of such 
characteristics occurring in any particular locality, 
we should first " cher-cher la race." We must allow, 
however, that under a change of external circum- 
stances natural selection may exert its influence to 
alter they type, and that conjugal, and what may be 
called social selection may also apparently modify 
it. Thirdly, the direct influences of external 
agencies, except upon the individual, and for his 
life only, is as yet unproven, though not by any 
means absolutely disproved. 


To what races or types, then, is the future to 

The northern dolichos at present multiply freely, 
and are actively engaged in colonizing the North 
American and Australian Continents, in which 
their type is now dominant. Whether it will long 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 183 

continue to be so, may be doubted. There is in the 
colonists plenty of size, of vigour, of beauty, and of 
intellectual power; nevertheless, there are signs 
which lead some to doubt whether all these will be 
permanent. The birth-rate tends to decrease among 
the pure Anglo-Americans, while the French-Can- 
adians, strongly crossed with native Indian blood, 
are multiplying with alarming rapidity; and the 
American military statistics seem, prima facie, to 
indicate that the climate is less suitable to the blond 
than to the brunette. 

And in Europe the brachykephals, and, what is 
nearly the same thing for us, the brunettes, have 
been shown to be gaining ground, in the west only 
insensibly, as it were by infection, but in the east, 
among the Slavs, with open certainty. Topinard, 
no admirer of the brachykephalic type, says in his 
latest work {U Homme dans la Nature) that the day 
will come when it will be universal. The Medi- 
terranean race has had its turn ; it exhausted its 
energies long ago in the conquest of South America 
and "the Indies," and is now comparatively stag- 
nant ; but there are some signs, I think, of its future 
revival. But, of the increase of the Jews, at least, 
there can be no doubt whatever. There are no data 
to shew us whether of the two curiously discrimin- 
ated Jewish types is gaining on the other; but I 
strongly suspect that it is the brachykephalic. 
However that may be, the Jews grow not only in 
number, living longer and dying less readily than 
the Gentiles among whom they dwell, but they are 
gradually attracting to themselves the whole move- 

184 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

able wealth of the earth ; and wealth is power, and 
the world must move or halt as wealth bids it. It 
would be strange if, in spite of the community of 
religion and traditions and usages, there were not 
some moral or intellectual difference connected 
with the physical one between these two sections 
of the Hebrews. And I believe there is. The 
Sephardim, who have usually the rather small oval 
true Semitic type of head, are said to be some- 
what looked up to by the Ashkenazim, who are 
mostly of the broad-headed type. And whatever 
may be the case at the present time, in past 
times it has been individuals from among the 
Sephardim who have distinguished themselves 
from the common herd of their fellow-believers, 
and that in ways more noble than that of money- 

And so again with the two great races of north- 
ern and central Europe. De CandoUe and De 
Lapouge will tell us that of men of genius, of 
originality, men who have made their mark in 
history, or literature, or science, and whose memory 
remains green among us, the majority have been 
born among the long-headed blonds, the Aryans, as 
most people incorrectly call them. 

If we dot the map of Europe wherever a great 
man has been born, we shall find, say they, that the 
dots will cluster about an axis drawn from Edinburgh 
(mark that, ye Aberdonians, they do not say "from 
Aberdeen ") — from Edinburgh to Switzerland. A 
subordinate line might be drawn, crossing the first, 
from Normandy to the Baltic; and there will 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 185 

remain two or three independent blotches about the 
Garonne, the Rhone, and Upper Italy. 

It is evident therefore, in spite of Schaffhausen,^ 
that there is virtue in the long-headed stock, the 
stock which, as the Tanagra figures show us, pre- 
dominated in the old Greeks. But its partizans go 
further, and say that men of genius not only arise 
among them, but are themselves, in majority, con- 
stituted like the stock amidst which they arise. 
And I incline to think they are right. 

Dr. Venn has shewn, in the Anthropological 
Transactions, that at Cambridge the first-class men 
have proportionally longer as well as more capacious 
heads than the rest of the students. In our own 
islands, where the breadth of head varies locally but 
little, and its general form more decidedly, while 
the complexion varies very considerably, it is safe 
to say that men of distinction are in large proportion 
natives of the more blond areas. The east, north 
and south, surpass in this respect the centre and 
west. Conan Doyle, in a rather superficial exam- 
ination, found that after Edinburgh and some other 
parts of Scotland not well defined, Hampshire and 
Suffolk, two somewhat despised Anglo-Saxon dis- 
tricts,^ headed the list. And I may perhaps be 
allowed to quote myself on the same topic — "In 
opposition to the current opinion, it would seem 
that the Welsh rise most in commerce, the Scotch 

1 This illustrious anthropologist, so often referred to in these lectures, 
has died since they were delivered. 

'^ " Hampshire hogs," and " Silly Suffolk " are proverbial. 

186 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

coming after them, and the Irish nowhere. The 
people of Welsh descent and name hold their own 
fairly in science : the Scotch do more, the Irish less 
— (I am taking the English as the standard). But 
when one looks to the attainment of military or 
political distinction, the case is altered. Here the 
Scotchmen, and especially the Highlanders, bear 
away the palm ; the Irish retrieve their position, 
and the Welsh are little heard of." If I were to 
hazard a guess, a thing I am not very fond of doing, 
I would say that among the longheads it is the 
wider, among the broadheads the longer, that more 
often rise to distinction. In each case the skull, 
while retaining its original general pattern, acquires 
an additional development in the direction in which 
it is most deficient. You may have two heads which 
give you about the same index in brutal figures, 
but in which the mode of development and the 
details of form are quite different. Thus, I am 
inclined to look on the old Roman head as a high 
type of longhead, widened in the temporal region. 
If you want to have a disputed question put 
trenchantly, clearly, logically, and carried out to 
the bitter end, you must go to France to have it 
done; and in this particular case you may go to 
Obedenare to champion the broad, and to De 
Lapouge and De Candolle to sing the praise of the 
longhead. One would suppose, in listening to 
them, that the children of light were not more 
sharply discriminated from the children of darkness; 
only as to which is which they differ. 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 187 

On the one hand, we are told that the long- 
suffering race, which desired to harm nobody, to 
rule over and tryannize over nobody, which asked 
only to be allowed to remain at peace in the land of 
its birth, and to labour and produce without inter- 
ference from the brigands, the restless warriors and 
conquerors of the other race, but which hitherto 
has seldom had this modest privilege, now at last, 
in these latter days, begins to see a chance of its 
virtuous aspirations being realised. No longer will 
its youth, in the days to come, be torn from their 
homes and enrolled in armies to satisfy the greed 
for land and dominion of the long-headed barbar- 
ians; their undeniable valour will be exercised only 
in defence of their homes, and their patient industry 
and domestic affection, will be crowned with peace 
and plenty, with equality and fraternity. 

On the other hand, we are told that in common 
schools in France, the long-headed children surpass 
the broad-headed ones; that the world owes far 
more to the Englishman, the Scotchman, and the 
Norman, than to the Kelt, the Rhgetian, the Rouman 
or the Slav; and that it would simply stagnate and 
putrefy were the northern long-headed race to be 
nipped and checked in its development, for the 
source of originality, of genius, of inventiveness, of 
the spirit of travel and of adventure, would be cut 
off. " Better fifty years of Europe," they say in 
effect, "than a cycle of Cathay." 

These ideas are extreme, of course. No people 
in homogeneous, or has an absolute monopoly of 

188 The Anthropological History of Europe. 

any particular endowment. The Alpine race are 
not always pacific or industrious; their ancestors 
apparently treated the primitive Iberians of France 
as badly as we treat the native Australians, and 
their stone arrows have been found sticking in the 
ribs of those unfortunate longheads. " Breton " 
(and most of the Bretons are of this race) was about 
the 14th century synonymous with " swashbuckler," 
and the Croats have not the reputation of law- 
abiding harmlessness. Still, certain qualities do 
adhere to certain races, and seem to be due greatly 
to their histories, traditions, and environments, 
the influence of their great writers, and so forth, 
but partly also to their physical conformation 
and hereditary constitution of brain. Scott has 
done something, no doubt, towards moulding the 
modern Scottish character; but then, he was him- 
self the product of the Scottish border, and could 
not have been born anywhere else. 

It is an invidious thing to draw national char- 
acters, and to point out their defects. But how 
seldom do the English produce a great orator, or 
the Irish a great engineer, or the Scotch a great actor, 
or the Welsh, though undeniably brave, a great 
soldier. The Spaniards have always been cruel, the 
French boastful, the Italians crafty and cunning, the 
English lovers of fair play, respecters of wealth, 
sufferers from " mauvaise haute/)' These points come 
out repeatedly in history. My audience laughed 
when they heard that the Little-Russians were "fond 
of greasy feeding and of music ; " but we may look 
nearer home, and say the same of the Yorkshire 

Scotland, with General Conclusions. 189 

men. The love and skill for music go back in them 
at least 700 years; of the antiquity of the other 
characteristic I am not so sure; perhaps it is as old 
as the time of the " felon sow," when :— 

" Ralph of Rokeby with good will 
The friars of Rokeby gave her till. 
Full well to gar them fare." 

Or as that still more remote period when roast pork 
loomed so largely among the idle joys of the 
Vikings' Valhalla. 

Finally, there are assuredly diversities of gifts 
pertaining to diverse breeds of men ; and unless we 
are all reduced to the dull dead level of socialism, 
and perhaps even in that case, for the sake of relief, 
we shall continue to stand in need of all these gifts. 
Let us hope, then, that blue eyes, as well as brown 
eyes, will continue to beam on our descendants, and 
that heads will never come to be framed all upon 
one and the same pattern. 



Curves of Stature. 

Bertillon pere discovered that the curve of stature 
of the conscripts of the department of the Doubs 
was bicipital, one of its equal peaks being at 164 
centimeters and the other about 169'5. He attribu- 
ted these facts to the presence of two incompletely 
amalgamated races, the Keltic and the Burgundian, 
the latter being the taller. On this hypothesis the 
Burgundians ought not, one would think, to have 
produced a peak in the curve equal to that due to 
the Kelts ; for we know that they were not nearly 
so numerous (they took only one-third of the land 
from the natives). One may, however, suppose them 
reinforced in their influence on the stature by other 
tall tribes or immigrants, Germanic or Belgic. It 
was soon discovered that a somewhat similar bi- 
cipital curve occurred in the conscription lists of 
most of the north-eastern departments of France, 
all or almost all of which are inhabited by a com- 
paratively tall breed of men. 

A few years later, however, Ridolfo Livi demon- 
strated that the bicipital form of the curve in these 
cases was due to an arithmetical error, which 
naturally arose in the translation of Paris inches 
into centimeters, and to the natural, but unconscious, 
bias of observers and measurers for round numbers. 

Appendix. 191 

The presence of two races of differing stature, 
and not thoroughly amalgamated, does, however, 
tend to produce a broader, lower, and more extensive 
curve. Of this I have given some examples. In the 
Doubs and Ardennes the taller race-element (Gal- 
atic, Frank, or Burgundian) is tolerably strong, and 
pushes out the curve into a conspicuous shoulder, 
in the Marne this is not quite so noticeable : in 
France generally, including all the south and 
west, still less so ; and in the Correze, a poor, hilly, 
moorland district, where the native short-statured 
brachykephal has been very little disturbed, it is 
not recognizable. 

Curves of Cranial or Kephalic Index. 

In these the influence of race or of hereditary 
type, is more distinct and undeniable than in those 
of stature, the latter being more liable to disturbing 
influences. But even in dealing with heads and 
skulls the cautions of Livi must be borne in mind, 
and something must be allowed for arithmetical 
vagaries, and, where the numbers dealt with are not 
great, for pure chance. One hundred is a number 
whence one may generally get a probably correct 
impression. Thus in Ranke's Franconian series one 
may be pretty confident that the lines indicate a 
Germanic dolicho and a Slavonic, Keltic or other 
brachykephalic element, and that the former as well 
as the latter is present in considerable force ; but a 
larger number of examples is much to be desired. 
The two peaks among my 75 Munstermen are 
probably merely accidental. The second peak in 
Ranke's Chammiinster men (at 85, 86) may or may 
not be significant. The long series of Swiss skulls 
which I have taken from KoUmann unites several 
races from the prehistoric ones down. In the 

192 Appendix. 

Swedish diagram, based on sufficiently large num- 
bers, Dalarne (Dalecarlia) yields an almost absol- 
utely symmetrical curve, indicating a pure Nordic 
or Suiogothic race, but Lappland bulges to the 
broader side, owing to the presence of round-headed 

In the purely British diagram the curves of 
Devon and Wilts differ considerably. Wiltshire is 
notable for the complete or nearly complete absence 
of true brachykephals. It has a prolongation on the 
dolicho side rising to a peak at 72, which may 
perhaps be due to descendants and representatives 
of the denizens of our long barrows. For the Wilt- 
shire population seem to be almost wholly Saxon or 
Iberian, with very little sign of French or Welsh 
invasion. Its average index is about 76"3. That of 
Devon is about 7816; it is frankly mesokephalic, 
and may represent a population largely Brythonic. 
The 100 men of intellectual superiority give me a 
lower average (77'87), mesokephalic, but near the 
confines of dolichokephaly. Though generally 
(with many exceptions it is true), of larger size, in 
kephalic index they do not differ notably from the 
races to which they belong. The main body of 
the scheme represents the English and the Scotch 
generally: the secondary peak to the right may 
perhaps be due to the Norman, Huguenot and 
Welsh elements, not completely assimilated. 


Beddoe, John 
^^^ The antliropological 

B4. history of Europe